Team Kiln

Fro. 17a of inoh deal must be nailed inside for the door to rest against. Before putting the door in its pl&oe, day or mortar should be smeared round the fillets to keep the door from leaking. The door need not be hinged, but can be kept in its place by a oross-bar of wood working through two staples driven into the ends of the ohest.

The timbers will require steaming three or four hours before they are sufficiently pliable. They must be taken from the steam chest and fitted into the boat one by one; the first fastening to put in will be the one through or in the keel (a Muntz-metal dump is best for this). Press with the foot or hands the timber into the bilge, sad put a fastening through it here (from the outside). The stations for the timbers should be previously marked across each plank atrake, and the holea through the overlaps should be bored before putting the timber in.

If the timber haa to be joggled to reoeive the inside edges of each strake (see Kg. 172), the fastenings must not be olinohed as the timber will have to be removed for the joggles to be out. The timbers, however, should not be removed until they are perfectly oool and rigid; they should be allowed to stay in the boat a day and night before removing. (If strength rather than neatness be required, the timbers should not be joggled.)

The gunwale must now be fitted (this is more properly termed the " in-wale," as it is the pieoe of timber which is fitted inside the top strake; it answers the purpose of the "damp" used in larger boats). Having deoided upon the sise of the wale—its depth sad thickness—it must be fitted. In the first place, the timber heads are out down inside the top strake to the depth of the wale [one plan is not to out the timbers so low as this by half an inoh, and make joggles in the wale to reoeive the head of each timber; when this is done, however, the wale or damp should be somewhat stouter, as it will be weakened by the joggles]. Usually the wale is flush with the top strake; but a better plan is to cut a rabbet in the wale (see Fig. 101, page 353) to fit over the top strake.

A nail is put through the top strake and wale (from the outside), and rooved or clinched without a roove, inside. A nail ia put through about every 4, 5, or 6 inches. Forward, the wale top strake, stem, and apron are kept together by a breast-hook or shaped knee (see sketoh A, Plate III., page 255). Aft, the wale and top strake are secured to the transom by a knee (see m, Half-breadth Plan, Plate III.). The thwarts will reat on the stringers (which are fastened through timbers and plank), as shown by a a and b b, Sheer Plan, Plate III. The thwarts are aecured by knees, as shown Fig. 101, page 353. The knee ia fastened through and out the wale and top strake, and with a long fastening through the overlap of strakes, and clenohed with ring on the knee; there will also be fastenings through the thwart and knee.

In buying oopper nails care must be taken that " land nails " are obtained for the plank fastenings, and " timber nails" for the timber fastenings. The rooves must match the nails. A rooving iron (which is simply a kind of punch with a hole in its end) will be required to drive the rooves on whilst a hammer is held to the head of the nail. The sixes of the plank nails will depend upon the double thickness of the plank; about one-sixth of the double thiokness should be added to the length of the nails for rooving and clenching.

If the boat is to be decked, a clamp or kind of shelf must be fitted to the timbers, and thoroughly faatened at each timber. The clamp will be fitted low enough for the beama to come fiuah with the top atrake. The beama will be arched as required, and faatened through the ahelf, much in the same way as ahown by Fig. 25, page 105. The top atrake ahould be of sufficient thickness to take the fastenings of the covering board. The oover-ing board should be of hard wood, suoh as oak, and must be out to fit the curve of the deck, as shown in the Half-breadth Plan.

The deck plank will be nailed to the beams by galvanised nails; not through the plank from the top downwards, but diagonally through the aide edgea of the plank into the beams.

The under edgee of the plank will meet oloaely on the beams; but the upper edges will "gape," as ahown, in an exaggerated way, by a a, Fig. 174; this is for the caulking. An eighth of an inoh will give a wide enough



aeam. The oakum or ootton thread (a oouple of threada will be enough for inch plank) must be driven in tightly by the caulking chisel, and then payed with marine glue or stopped with putty (aee articles on these subjects). Generally the arch of the beams will give the seam opening enough, as at a a; bat, where it will not, the plank should be bevelled to the extent of a shaving or two. The seam round the covering board should be well caulked and payed.

A hanging knee should be fitted on each side under the beam abreast of the mast or rigging (see n, Fig. 25, page 105). If the boat is wholly decked, three pairs of such hanging knees should be fitted.

If the boat is half-deck, waterways should be fitted. Short beams will be worked for these, and their inner ends will be butted into a fore-and-aft piece, which fore-and-aft piece will in turn be butted into the full beams at either end. Two or three pairs of hanging knees (made of oak) will support the waterways.

Chain-plates for the rigging will be fitted as shown by Fig. 100, page 851.

The following are suitable sizes of timber or plank for a boat of these dimensions :—

Extreme length, 14ft. 2in.; beam, 5ft. lin.; depth, 2ft.; elm plank, fin. thickness; American elm timbers, steamed, fin. by fin.; all copper fastened, with copper stem-band, and rudder hangings; gunwales, American elm, l±in. by lin.; keel, elm, 2$in. wide, 4in. deep below the garboard strake; false keel, 4in. aft, running to Sin. forward; three thwarts, the first from the stexp 3ft., second 5ft. llin., third, 8ft. lOin.; seats round the stern, width 1ft., thiokness all in, lin.; ballast, when single-handed, three bags of beach gravel, length, lft. llin., width, 1ft. 5in., weighing eaoh about a hundredweight; with three hands on board one bag can be dispensed with, with four hands only one bag is in ordinary weather requisite; sails, sprit mizen, lug foresail, and jib. The following are the dimensions of the sails:—Jib, on the luff, 10ft. 6in.; hoist or leach, 8ft.; foot, 6ft. 6in.: standing lug-mainsail, 5ft. 4in. on the luff; head 9ft. 6in., leach 14ft. 6in., foot 9ft. 4in.; a sprit mizen, measuring on the luff 5ft., on leaoh 8ft., on the foot 4ft.; length of sprit, 8ft. lin.; length of bowsprit, 7ft. lOin.; diameter at outer end, Sin.; at heel, 2^in. Mast as long as can oonveniently stow inside the boat on the thwarts; diameter at top, 2¿in.; at level of the thwarts, Sin.; distance of mast from the stem, lft. 9in., and stepped through a fore and aft thwart, fitted to the front thwart and extending forward until it butts against the apron piece at the back of the stem. The lug has a little boom, 2in. diameter at the mast, and l^in. at the after end. In lieu of jaws or gooseneck a hole is bored through the end where the jaws would be, to receive the tack of the lugsail, which is knotted below the boom, and thus keeps the boom in its place olose to the mast; a hole is bored also through the thwart to receive the taok, one inch abaft the mast hole. The arrangement of the main sheet is as follows:—On the foreside of the after-thwart two wedge-shaped cleats are nailed amidship against the edge, whioh form a notch an inch deep. The mainsheet has a small thimble in it, 18in. from one end, which is secured round the thwart and in the notch, hence it cannot slide from its position. Another thimble is seized by a grommetto the boom. The mainsheet is first rove through the boom thimble, and then through the first-named thimble, just above the level of the afterthwart. The mainsail thus works from side to side in going about, without the usual trouble of shifting the sheet from gunwale to gunwale. This arrangement is convenient for beating up channels, river Bailing, or at sea when fishing, where a constant change of oourse is necessary every few minutes. For a freshwater lake or river it would be better to use fir or oak plank, as elm decays at the water-line in about three years. Elm is especially liable to decay, " between wind and water," but if entirely submerged will endure for ages.

Boat Chocks.—Pieces of wood with a soore in them to take the keel of boats when they are lifted in upon deck.

Boat Hook.—A wood pole with a metal hook and prong at one end; sometimes with two hooks. A yacht's gig has two boat hooks—one for the use of the bowman, another for the stroke ; by these means a boat is held alongside the steps of a jetty or by the gangway of a vessel, Ac.

Boat Keeper.—The man left in charge of a boat when the other part of her crew go on shore.

Boat's Crew.—Men told off to always man a particular boat, such as the gig, outter, or dinghy of a yacht.

Boatswain.—An officer who takes charge of a yacht's gear, and it is his duty to superintend all work done upon the spars, rigging, or sails. He also takes charge of all spare gear and sails, and sees that everything on deck and above deck is neat, clean, and ship-shape. He must in every sense of the word be a thorough seaman, and must know how all work upon rigging and sails should be done. As he has constantly to handle the-sails and rigging, he necessarily has a knowledge of their condition, and it is his duty to report all defects in the same.

Boatswain's Call.—A whistle consisting of a hollow ball and a tube leading to a hole in it. By varying the sounds the men are " piped" to their work just the same aa soldiers are ordered by the sound of a bugle. The pipe is seldom met with in English yachts, not even in those of large size, and the boatswain has little to do with giving orders.

Bobstay.—The bowsprit stay. (See page 115.)

Body.—Part of a vessel's hull, as fore-body, middle-body, and after-body. A vessel is said to be long-bodied when the tapering of the fore-and-aft lines are very gradual; short-bodied when the fore-and-aft lines taper very suddenly; a long-body thus means a great parallel length of middle-body. (See " Straight of Breadth.")

Body Plan.—A plan which contains the cross sections of a vessel. The midship section or largest section is generally shown on the right-hand side of the middle line of the body plan; sometimes on both sides.

BoUard.—A stoat timber to fasten ropes and warps to.

BoUard Timbers.—The bollard timbers of a vessel are the same as the knightheads; originally the knightheads were carved figures of knights (fitted near the foremast to receive the windlass), hence the name knightheads. (See " Knightheads.")

Bolsters.—Pieces of hard wood bolted to the yoke or lower cap on the mast for the rigging to rest upon. They are sometimes covered with leather or sheepskin with the hair on, or raw hide, to prevent the rigging chafing. (See page 119.)

Bolt.—A fastening of metal. An eye bolt is a bolt with an eye in it used to hook blocks, Ac., to. A ring bolt is a bolt with an eye and a ring in the eye. An ear bolt or lug bolt is a bolt with a kind of slot in it to receive the part of another bolt, a pin keeping the two together and forming a kind of joint (see C, Fig. 31, page 124). Bay bolts are bolts with jagged edges to prevent their drawing.

Bolt Rope.—The rope sewn round the edges of sails. It is made of the very best Riga Rhine hemp, dressed with Stockholm tar. A fore-and-aft sail is roped on port side, a square-sail on aft side. There is the weather Gaff) rope, leech rope, foot rope, and head rope.

Booby Hatch.—A hatch on coamings used to give greater height in the cabin of small yachts, and which oan be removed.

Boom.—A spar used to extend the foot of sails. To top the boom is to make sail and away. To boom off is to shove off a wharf, bank, &c., by the aid of spars. Stakes of wood used to denote a channel throngh shoal water are termed booms.

Boom Irons.—Iron bands on booms, with eyes, to whioh blocks or ropes may be hitched.

Boomkin.—A short boom of great strength, usually written " bumpkin."

Bonnet.—An addition to a sail by laoing a short piece to its foot; common in America, not often seen in British yachts.

Bore.—A sadden tide wave, whioh rolls along rapidly at oertain times on some rivers, and makes a great noise.

Boreas.—The north wind. An old sailor's saying iB, "as cold as Boreas with an iceberg in each pocket." Popularly the god that rules the wind, as J3olus is supposed to do.

Bore Away.—Did bear away. Said of a vessel that alters her oourse in a leewardly direction " as she bore away."

Bore by the Head.—A vessel is said to bore by the head when she, whilst passing through the water, is depressed by the head. (See pp. 28 and 329.)

Boring.—When a vessel by bearing away or luffing forces another vessel to bear away or luff to avoid a collision.

Boss.—A slang American term for sailing master, or chief in command.

Both Sheets Aft.—When a square-rigged ship has the wind dead aft, so that the sheets lead aft alike.

Bottom.—Usually understood as the part of a vessel below the bilge.

Bottomry.—The hull or bottom of a ship pledged as security for a loan. If the ship be lost the money is lost unless the lender has oovered himself by other means.

Bound.—Encased with metal bands. Also referring to the destination of a vessel. Wind-bound means that a vessel is in a port or at an anchorage because the wind is unfavourable for her to proceed. Formerly square-rigged ships were everlastingly wind-bound, i.e., waiting in port because the wind was adverse ; now they go out and look for a fair wind, and generally oan sail so well on a wind that waiting for a fair wind would be considered an unpardonable piece of folly.

Bow.—The fore part of a vessol; forward of the greatest transverse section. In taking bearings an objeot is said to be on the bow if its direction does not make more than an angle of 45° with the line of the keel.

Bower Anchor.—The anchor in constant use.

Bow Fast.—A warp for holding the vessel by the bow.

Bowing the Sea.—Meeting the sea bow on or end on, or nearly end on, as in close-hauled sailing. When the sea runs true with the wind.

Bowline Haul.—The foremost man in hauling on a bowline sings out, " One! two !! three i !! haul!! !! " the weight of sll the men being thrown on the rope when the " haul" is shouted out. This chant is sometimes varied, thus :

Heave on the bowlin' When the ship's a roUIn'— One! two!i three!!! haul!

The origin of this probably is from the fact that when the Bhip takes her weather roll the sails lift and bo some of the bowlines slack can be got in.

Bowlines.—Ropes made fast to cringles in the weather leech of squaresails, to pull them taut and steady when sailing on a wind. The bowlines usually lead into a bridle. Sailing on a bowline means sailing on a wind when the bowlines would be hauled fio, 175. taut; henoe the phrase " sailing on a taut bowline." Sailing on an easy bowline means sailing with the sails well fall, and the bowlines eased up a little, so that the vessel is not quite " on a wind " or oloee hauled.

Bow-lines.—Continuation of buttock lines, showing the outline of vertical fore-and-aft sections in the fore-body. (See " Buttook-lines.")

Bowsprit.—A spar projecting from the bow of a ▼easel. A running bowsprit is one that can easily be reefed in like a cutter's. A standing bowsprit is one fitted in a bed and generally prolonged by a jibboom.

Bowsprit Bitts.—See page 118.

Bowsprit Cranse.—The iron cap at the bowsprit end, to which the gear is hooked ; in the oase of the vessel having a jibboom the oap is a double one to take the jibboom.

Bowsprit Shrouds.—See pp. 115 and 118.

Bomhauiing.—In tacking a ship to make her turn on her heel by hauling the head sheets a-weather, and getting stern-way on. Practised by square-rigged ships, sometimes in working narrow channels.

Boeing off.—Assisting to pay a vessel's head off the wind by hauling the head sheets a-weather.

Bom the Compass.—To call over all the points of a compass in regular order. To understand the compass points and subdivisions. (See " Compass.")

Braces.—Gunmetal or brass straps with eyes, fastened to the sternpost to reoeive the pintles of the rudder.

Strengthening pieces of iron or wood to bind together weak places in a vessel. Ropes used in working the yards of a ship.

Braced 8harp Up.—Said of a square-rigged ship when the weather braces are slacked up and the lee ones hauled in taut so as to trim the sails as olose to wind as possible.

Brace-up and Haul aft! — The order to trim sails after a vessel has been hove to with sails slaok.

Brails. Ropes fast to the leeches of fore-and-aft sails and leading through blocks on the mast hoops; used to haul or truss the sail up to the mast instead of lowering it and stowing it.

Breach.—A breaking in of the sea. A olean breach is when a wave boards a vessel in solid form, and sometimes makes a clean sweep of the deck, taking crew, boats, and everything else overboard. To make a clean breach over a vessel is when the sea enters one side and pours out the other.

Break Aboard.—When the crest of a wave falls aboard on the deck of a vessel.

Breakers.—Casks for containing water. Also the disturbed water over reefs, rocks, shoals, Ac.

Break Off.—In close-hauled sailing, when the wind comes more from ahead so as to cause the vessel's head to break to leeward of the course she had been sailing. Not to be oonfused with " fall off," which means that . the vessel's head goes off farther away from the wind.

Break tacks.—When a vessel goes from one tack to the other.

Breaming.—Cleaning off a ship's bottom by burning the excrescences thereon. Sometimes when a vessel is not coppered small worms will eat into the plank. It is usual then to scrape her bottom, coal tar her, and then bream her off by fire in breaming irons.

Breast Fast.—A warp fastened to a vessel amidships to hold her.

Breasthook.—A strong >-shaped wood knee used forward to bind the stem, shelf, and frame of a vessel together. Breasthooks are also used in other parts of a vessel. They are now frequently made of wrought iron.

Breeze, A.—In sailor's parlance, a strong blow of wind ; but generally a wind of no particular strength, as light breese, gentle breeze, moderate breese, strong breese, Ac. (See u Wind.")

Brssse-up.— The wind is said to " breese-np " when it increases fast in strength from a light wind.

Bridles.—The parts of moorings to hold on by ; many ropes gathered into one.

Brig.—A two-masted vessel, square-rigged on both masts.

Brigantine.—A two-masted vessel, differing from a brig by being only square-rigged forward.

Bring To, or Bring Her To.—-To luff or to oome close to wind. To anchor. (3ee " Come To.*')

Bring to Wind.—To luff a vessel olose to the wind after she has been sailing off the wind.

Bring Up.—To oome to anohor.

Bring Up all Standing.—To come to anohor, or to a stop suddenly without notice, or without any sail being lowered. To anchor without lowering sail.

Bristol Fashion.—In the best manner possible, Bristol shipbuilding and seamen formerly having a great reputation for excellence.

Broach To.—To come to against the wind and helm. (See page 180.)

Broad Pennant.—The swallow-tail flag of a commodore. (See " Burgee.")

Broadside On.—When a vessel moves sideways, or when she is approached by an object at right angles to her broadside.

Broken Water.—When waves lose their form bp breaking over reefs, rocks, or shallows, or by meeting waves from another direction, termed a cross sea.

Broom at the Masthead.—A signal that a boat or vessel is for sale. The origin of the custom appears to be unknown; but it is ingeniously argued that brooms were hoisted as a signal that a man wanted to make a clean sweep of his vessel.

Brought To.—After a vessel has been sailing off a wind when she is brought to wind, or dose to wind. Anchored.

Brought Up.—At anohor.

Bucklers.—Blocks of wood used to stop the hawse pipes.

Builder's Certificate.—A document given by the builder of a vessel to the owner when she is handed over, setting forth the builder's name, the name of the ship, place of building, m^ti^t of building, rig, dimensions, tonnage, N.M., and concluding with the following declaration: —" This is to oertify that [I or we] have built at-, in the county of-in the year-, the vessel-. The measure-

meat, tonnage, and description of which are giysn above.

As witness mj hand, this day of-.


This document mnst be produoed when application is made for registration.

Builder's Measurement, or B. M.—(See "Tonnage.")

Bulkheads.—The athwartship partitions which separate a vessel into compartments, cabins, Ac. Fore and aft partitions, are also termed bulkheads.

Bull's Eye.—A block without a sheave, and with one hole in it.

Bulwark.—The side of a vessel above the deok.

Bumboat.—A boat used by shore people to carry provisions on sale to ships.

Bunt.—The middle part of a sail. To gather up the bunt is take hold of the middle part of a sail and gather it up.

Bunting.—Woollen stuff of whioh flags are made.

Bunter.—A kind of tackle.

Bunt Lines.—Ropes attaohed to sails to haul them up by.

Buoy.—A floating mark.

Burden or Burthen.—Supposed to mean the quantity in tons of dead weight that a vessel will carry. The quantity would be the difference between the displacement of the ship when light and the displacement of the ship when she was laden as deeply as prudent. (See page 3.)

Burgee.—A triangular flag flown at the truok as a kind of pennant. A commodore's pennant is a " swallow-tail" burgee. A vice-oomme-dore's burgee has one white ball in the upper corner or oanton of the hoist; a rear-commodore's, two balls.

Burgee, Etiquette of.—It is considered etiquette» if a yacht is on a station where there is a club established, and her owner is a member of the olub, that the flag of that particular club should be hoisted as the yacht arrives on the station, although the owner may be the oommodore, or vice, or rear-oommodore of another club. Frequently, however, in such a case the burgee is merely run up on arrival and then lowered and the oommodore pennant re-hoisted. If the yacht is a schooner, a flag-offioer oan fly his pennant at the main, and the olub burgee at the fore. If several yachts are lying at an anchorage where there is no olub, the yachts will fly the burgee of the senior flag-officer present; but if there be two flag-offioers of equal rank present, then the flag of the one whose olub is senior by virtue of the date of its Admiralty warrant will be flown. In the Royal Navy, if two or three ships are cruising in company, the title of oommodore is given by courtesy to the senior oaptain present; but the rank does not seem very well defined, as, although an " appointed"

oommodore is said to rank next to a rear-admiral, yet he cannot fly his broad pennant in the presenoe of a " superior oaptain" without permission. In the oase of the Yaoht Navy, the senior offioer would mean the one of highest rank; and where, in the oase of a olub, the rank of the flag-offioer is equal, seniority depends upon tie date of the Admiralty warrant of the club whioh conferred the rank, and not upon the length of servioe of the offioer; but a vioe-oommodore of a senior olub does not take precedence of a oommodore of a junior olub. By the same rule, when several yaohts are present belonging to olubs that have no Admiralty warrants, the date of the establishment of the several olubs would decide the seniority of flag-offioers of equal rank, but olubs with Admiralty warrants always rank before those without. (See "Saluting," " Recognised Clubs," "Royal Clubs," "Admiralty Warrants," and " Ensigns.")

When the Royal Yacht Squadron was first established, members flew private signal flags, containing their crest or other devioe, at the truok. Owners of schooners in Amerioa fly suoh a flag at the fore when the owner is on board, olub burgee always at the main. During meals American yachtsmen sometimes hoist a " dinner napkin," %.*., a square white flag at the fore. The Cambria in the Atlantic race flew her racing flag at the main, and the Royal Harwich Yacht Club burgee at the fore.

Burton.—A tackle composed of two single blocks; a double Spanish burton oonsists of two single and one double blook.

Butcher's Cleaver Plate.—This plate has been devised to get a greater area of board immersed without increasing its extreme dimensions, and thereby neoessarily increasing the size of the oase inside the boat. The plate, instead of being pivoted at its fore end as usual, had an iron bar some two or three feet long riveted thereon; and the plate was then pivoted on this bar.

A is a portion of the keel of a boat 15ft. long.

B is the plate made of fin. boiler iron 8ft. 6in. long, and 1ft. 4in. deep. ' C is an iron bar l}in. by }in. riveted to the plate at D, and pivoted in the keel at B. The bar at D has " ears " or jaws, into whioh the plate is fitted and riveted.

The plate is lifted by a jointed ber bolted at I.

When the board is lifted the bar C fits imto a groove made in the keel to receive it.

The probability is, as nearly half of the plate wonld be moving in disturbed water, that equally good results would be obtained from a triangular plate of half the area. It was pointed out on page 16 that the effective lateral resistance for any given plane would be considerably increased if one edge of the plane made a large angle with the direction of its motion ; and for this reason a square plate of 3 square feet area would be not much more effeotive than a triangular one of 1} square feet area.

Butt,—The joining or meeting of two pieces of wood end-ways. Butt and butt means that two planks meet end to end, but do not overlap.

Butt End.—The biggest end of a spar.

Buttock.—The after-part of a vessel from her run upwards.

Buttock Lines.—Planes in a fore-and-aft direction, showing the outline of vertical fore-and-aft sections in the after-body.

By and Large.—Backing and filling, which see. (See also " Large.")

By the Head.—When the vessel is trimmed or depressed by the head so that her proper line of flotation is departed from.

By the Lee.—To bring a vessel by the lee is when nearly before the wind she falls off so much as to bring the wind on the other quarter ; or the wind may shift from one quarter of the vessel to the other without the vessel altering her course (" See Lee "). (See page 180.)

By the Stem.—The contrary to being by the head.

By the Wind.—Close hauled ; hauled by the wind.

By the Board.—Going or falling overboard.

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