Royal Caroline And The Development Of English Fast Sailing Ships

Gun Squirrel Sixth Rate

The eighteenth century saw a new introduction of science into the art of naval architecture. The first attempts to apply mathematical criteria to shipbuilding were made mainly in France. There, mathematics and experimental scientific studies were widespread and traditional shipbuilding methods were not so deep-rooted as in England. There was a French school of physics and applied mathematics engaged in the study of the optimum shape for hulls. Some of the finest scientists of the time were...

Table Diameters Of Standing Rigging

Collar (of block on lower mast) Staysail stay Collar (of block on lower mast) Topgaliant masts TABLE 3 DIAMETERS OF RUNNING RIGGING TO LOWER YARDS TABLE 3 DIAMETERS OF RUNNING RIGGING TO LOWER YARDS TABLE 4 DIAMETERS OF RUNNING RIGGING TO TOPMAST YARDS TABLE 4 DIAMETERS OF RUNNING RIGGING TO TOPMAST YARDS 2.4cm rope which ran through the eye of the long strops which carried the blocks and through a stop cleat nailed to the masthead. The strop of the large single block in the centre of the yard...

Career

In 1748 the years were beginning to tell on the old Carolina (she had been renamed Royal Caroline in 1733, but will be referred to here as Carolina to avoid confusion with the later ship). In March that year, the King commented to Captain Molloy that the ship was not exactly in tiptop condition and it was reported to Anson that the hull was in need of urgent repairs. Her last voyage as a royal yacht took place in November 1748, a difficult crossing from Hellevoetsluis in Holland to Kingsgate,...

Standing Rigging

The complexity of the rigging on three-masted, square rigged ships arose mainly from the limitations of the available materials. All materials were vegetable in origin wood for the masts and spars, hemp for ropes, hemp again for the sails, tar to impregnate the ropes, wood again for the blocks and so on. The importance of the cordage is obvious at first sight. Ropemaking. Ropes in pre-industrial times were valued and widely used, and their manufacture and preservation were the object of...

Tops Trestletrees And Caps

The Royal Caroline tops were built according to the 1745 Establishments, which differ very little from those of the beginning or the end of the century. The platform was light, but strong, built of 2-inch fir planks. The planking was laid in the traditional way which can be seen in drawings G1-G3, and nailed where they crossed. In the Royal Navy elm wood was used for the rim reinforcement and the battens. These reinforcing pieces were not nailed but fixed to the platform with treenails. In the...

The Ships Boat

The only available source for reconstructing Royal Caroline's boat is Cleveley's painting, which shows a rather large craft positioned on the main deck, in the usual manner for eighteenth century ships, which lacked gangways between the quarterdeck and forecastle. The main topsail sheet bitts were extended vertically so that a crossbeam, called the boat gallows, placed on them was on a level with the forecastle deck. The spare masts and spars which every ship carried rested on this beam at one...

Running Rigging To The Yards

The order in which the running rigging was fitted to the yards was not dictated by the assembly requirements, as in standing rigging. The yards were fitted as required ashore and then taken on board and hoisted into position. The order of rigging the lower yards. First the stirrups and footropes were fitted. The stirrups were 3 feet long and attached to the yard by being wound round it three times and nailed down using short, flat-headed nails. The part that was nailed down was first unlaid and...

Hull Structure And Planking

The building of big wooden hulls with load-bearing frames reached a stage in development at the end of the sixteenth century in which all structural elements were already present more or less as in nineteenth century ships. So refinements were slow in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Building methods varied from country to country only in the details. All ships, or at least all square rigged sailing ships which were built in European shipyards from Trieste to K nigsberg, were...

Introduction

During the reigns of George II and George III Royal Caroline or Caroline as she was more popularly called was the principal royal yacht. This was a time when England, under the Hanoverian monarchy, was becoming a world power this meant a sea power. George II nurtured an almost exclusive interest in the military arts and was the last King of England personally to lead his army into battie at Dettingen in 1743 . His Queen, the energetic, cultured and intelligent Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach,...