Acknowledgements

This book is based on research undertaken to develop Battle of the Ris-tigouche National Historic Park and broaden our understanding of the maritime background to the 1760 event. Thanks to the support of Parks Canada and my colleagues, the results of this research are now available to a wider public. In gathering information from various archives in Canada, France and Great Britain, I was greatly aided by the co-operation and advice of staff members of the following institutions the Archives...

The passengers

The crew members were not usually the only persons on board. They rubbed elbows with passengers, who frequently were not at all used to ocean voyages. Who were these passengers and why were they travelling to New France Were they treated differently, according to their social rank or who they were Many were going because of their work. For the government officials, a position in the colony was an important or a necessary step in their careers. The missionaries or nuns were going to convert the...

Routine and sleeping quarters

Sleeping Quarters Cargo Ship

We can only guess at what the sailors' daily routine must have been like. The documentation on the daily course of activities aboard the king's vessels is scant of course, there is even less for merchantmen. In the French navy, bells and drums were used to signal the hours of rising, meals, watches, and sleep for one and all, thereby setting the pulse of life aboard ship. The sailors also punctuated their work with shouts. There were sometimes more than 100 men pulling the same rope and it fell...

Life Aboard the Tall Sailing Ships

Published by Dundurn Press Limited in co-operation with Parks Canada and the Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada Copyright Minister of Supply and Services Canada - 1984 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise (except brief passages for purposes of review) without the prior written permission of the...

List of the Personal Effects of Nicolas Certain a Seaman from the Vive le Roy of Dieppe who Died at Quebec City After

Two sacks containing his belongings and clothing Four shirts of various fabrics, half worn out Four old neckerchiefs One more neckerchiefs, old and ragged Five old pairs of three-ply stockings Two old thick caps Three cloth bandages One old coarse-knit jersey Two old pairs of long cloth pants Three pairs of breeches one old and threadbare pair made of blue panne, and the other two pairs of brown and blue material One pair of old shoes with thin buckles One fairly new paletot of homespun,...

Appendix A Kings Vessels at Quebec City From to

Year 1746 Due d'Anville squadron comprising 7 warships, 1 hospital ship, 4 flutes, 3 corvettes, 2 frigates, 2 fire ships, 1746 Due d'Anville squadron comprising 7 warships, 1 hospital ship, 4 flutes, 3 corvettes, 2 frigates, 2 fire ships, squadron comprising 5 warships, 1 frigate, 1 flute, 6 East Indiamen, and 26 merchant ships

Port activities

Whether constructed in Brest or in Rochefort, and whether young or old, all sailing ships had to undergo a major refit before each voyage. Thus, when the king ordered an expedition or when a shipowner decided to trade with the colonies, and the choice of captain and vessel had been made, careening would begin (figure 6). This operation, which would start once the vessel's ballast had been removed, consisted of heaving it down using cables running through pulleys attached to the heads of the...

Appendix C Survey of the Chezine

Copy of a letter from the Master Shipwright and his assistants at Plymouth to the Navy Board dated 14th of March 1760. In obedience to your directions of the 4th past we have been on board the La Chezine, lately taken by His Majesty's Ship Rippon and find her almost a new Frigate she is said to be not more than 16 Months Old, and to have been built at Nantes in France. She has ports on her upper deck for twenty-four guns, but think 'twill be difficult to fight the two foremost as she is not...

Insubordination and discipline

Failure to attend religious services was not the only dereliction to incur the rigour of authority. As in armed forces generally, desertion was undoubtedly the greatest problem affecting crews of navy and merchant vessels in the eighteenth century. On merchantmen, even those with small crews, the desertion of one or two sailors during fitting out, usually after they had collected one or two months' advance pay, was not an unusual occurrence. Joseph Froment, a Canadian signed on the Hasard, a...

Travelling up the St Lawrence

Even when a crew had managed to leave the fog of the Grand Banks behind and entered the waters of the Gulf, it could not expect clear sailing. In fact, the most perilous part of the journey was the trip up the St. Lawrence to Quebec City. This is not a meagre watercourse like the Vienne, the Seine or the Loire it is without dispute the finest river in the world, albeit not the widest in America.1 This opinion, of Abb Na-vi res in 1734, certainly differed from that of Bougainville, who declared...

Speed and distances

Charts and navigational instruments notwithstanding, the time taken to sail across the ocean was determined ultimately by the speed of the wind. Sailing vessels could cover the 1,200 leagues (according to Lahontan)1 from La Rochelle to Quebec City in nine weeks, or the 711 leagues (according to Denys de Bonaventure)2 between France and Cape Breton in seven. The return voyage from Quebec City to France took five weeks, and from Louisbourg to France, four weeks. In practice, the vessels did not...

Operations of the French Royal Navy

Careened Ship

Between 1755 and 1760, no fewer than 69 vessels commissioned by the king made a total of 93 voyages bound for Quebec City and Louisbourg (Table 7).1 Table 7 King's Vessels in New France, 1755-1760 Table 7 King's Vessels in New France, 1755-1760 Of this number, at least 10 were unable to reach their destination, having been either diverted to the West Indies, shipwrecked, or captured en route. If we add other units of the French Royal Navy that were captured or destroyed in North American...

Climate and averages

Wind velocity could determine crossing times, and ice, the length of the navigation season but those were not the only significant effects of these two climatic factors. Although head winds would force a vessel to bear, or zigzag, thereby lengthening the distance, exceptionally strong winds were just as detrimental, if not more. Galeforce winds and the storms usually accompanying them were probably the greatest fear of transAtlantic crews and passengers of the day. When gales struck, the crew...

Courses and markers

Having first hoisted a flag on the small topmast to announce that he was raising anchor, and having fired a shot to hasten any late arrivals, the captain would give the order to unfurl the small topsail for casting off. Upon leaving the Rochefort-La Rochelle region, ships would sail up to Isle Dieu or Belle-Isle and, from there, would head west.1 In 1665, Jean Talon recommended a passage located between 46 and 46 2 3 degrees north latitude as the best course for crossing the Atlantic.2 In...

The French navy

The man-of-war was a three-masted vessel rigged with square sails. A royal regulation, adopted as far back as 1670, distinguished five classes of such vessels.1 The first and second classes included three-deckers capable of carrying between 56 and 120 guns. Only these men-of-war carried guns of 24-pound calibre or higher figure l .2 The third-class man-of-war had two decks and carried between 40 and 50 guns figure 2 . The calibre of these guns were rarely more than 18 pounds. These belonging to...

Crew members duties

Whereas inactivity was the daily routine for passengers, crew members did not have as much free time. The 1681 Code de la marine, for the 27. Planes from the Machault. Parks Canada. These three different types of planes were used for making grooves and working on wood that was very rough surfaced or concave in shape. They were probably from the tool box of the Ma-chaulfs carpenter. merchant marine, and the 1689 Code des Arm es Navales, for the king's vessels, set out the sailors' duties and...

Preface

Between France and New France is a study of life aboard the sailing vessels that plied the North Atlantic during the heyday of the French colonial effort in North America. It analyses four major aspects of these early trans-Atlantic crossings and examines maritime communications in the age of sail. The volume of traffic and the types of vessels are evidence of the roles of the French state and the private shipowners in defending New France and furnishing it with supplies. At the mercy of fickle...

The merchant marine

The sailing vessels fitted out by private owners included frigates, ships, brigantines, schooners, and bateaux. The frigates were used either for privateering or for escort vessels when the king did not have enough of his own. For example, in 1758, supplier Joseph Cadet acquired two frigates to protect his trading ships. In 1760, one of these frigates, the Machault, escorted the last expedition sent to Canada. The Machault, which had been built in 1757, was originally armed to raid enemy...

The library of Captain la Rivire

Louis Fran ois de la Rivi re ship's captain. Husband of Marie-Anne Ha-vard and a father, Louis Fran ois Merven de la Rivi re lives on rue Tou-louze in St. Malo. But St. Malo is only a home-port for this ship's captain, who specializes in trans-Atlantic voyages. His presence is noted at Louis-bourg on 23 September 1744 he has been living for nearly three months in the home of Sieur Latour on rue d'Orl ans. Room and board for two months and 25 days cost him 212 livres. The inventory and sale of...