Hinged Mast Step

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Sailboat Mast Support Brackets

Securing brackets Pull the dolly over the loading rollers to locate the axle in the brackets.

Dolly clamped to trailer

After lowering the dolly handles, clamp the dolly and trailer together.

Preparing for the road

Place the mast in the mast-support so that the heel rests on the aft decking or against the inside of the transom. Tape the shrouds and the halyards to the mast and pad the mast heel to prevent damage to the boat. Tie the mast to the support and to the central thwart. Remove or secure all loose equipment inside the boat. Fix the lighting board in place and connect it to the car socket. Check that the towing coupling is locked and the safety chain attached.

Clothing

Like many other sports, sailing makes special demands on your body, so it is important both for your comfort and your safety that you are properly equipped to go out in a boat. The equipment you need depends on the type of boat you are sailing, the weather and your resistance to cold. Unless you are fortunate enough to sail in tropical latitudes, you will often have to face bad weather and cold water. Open and partly open boats provide very little protection from wind and water. As weather conditions can deteriorate once you are afloat, and as the water temperature is often lower than the land temperature, your clothing must keep you as warm and as dry as possible.

You will need two basic layers of clothing, an insulating layer and water- and windproof clothing over it. The insulation can come from several layers of warm, loose clothing (such as vests and sweaters, jeans and socks) or specially made thermal underwear which traps and conserves the body heat in its fleecy, inner pile. Thermal underwear has the advantage of being very quick-drying.

The water- and windproof layer usually takes the form of a one-piece or two piece suit. It must be specially designed for sailing, with proofed fabric and bonded seams. Small boat sailors usually wear the one-piece type while big boat sailors normally prefer the heavy duty two-piece.

Racing enthusiasts, whose boats generally afford the minimum of protection, also face being immersed during a capsize. This can result in a sudden, massive loss of heat from the body. The best form of clothing, therefore, is a close fitting wet suit which has combined insulating and waterproofing properties. A one-piece waterproof suit can be worn over the top for extra protection.

As about 70 per cent of heat loss from the body is through the head, hands and feet, a scarf, wool hat, sailing gloves and non-slip sailing boots should be worn. In strong sunshine, you will need sunglasses and a hat with a brim.

The last, and most important, item is your safety gear. All sailors will need a lifejacket or buoyancy aid and. if you are cruising, a safety harness will also be necessary. Cruising does, however, require special preparation and this is discussed in greater detail in the cruising section which starts on page 150.

Basic sailing outfit

Your basic sailing gear should include light, warm underclothing, a waterproof layer, a buoyancy aid or lifejacket. hat, scarf, gloves and sailing boots or shoes. Both people in the picture above are wearing specially designed waterproof sailing suits; one is a two-piece (right), and the other a one-piece type (left).

Basic sailing outfit

Your basic sailing gear should include light, warm underclothing, a waterproof layer, a buoyancy aid or lifejacket. hat, scarf, gloves and sailing boots or shoes. Both people in the picture above are wearing specially designed waterproof sailing suits; one is a two-piece (right), and the other a one-piece type (left).

Sailing bag

Your sailing clothing should be kept in a soft waterproof bag. Some bags also have a waterproof compartment for wet clothing.

Sailing bag

Your sailing clothing should be kept in a soft waterproof bag. Some bags also have a waterproof compartment for wet clothing.

Chest-high trousers

Long John suit

Jacket with hood

Double fold gusset

Heavy waterproof suit

Waterproofing

The wind- and waterproof properties of your clothing are very important. Most waterproof suits are made of heavy, plastic-impregnated or rubber-backed synthetic cloth doubled at the seat, knees and elbows to give extra protection. For the upper part of the suit, jackets are better than parkas as they can be worn open. The seams must be specially bonded.

Jacket fastening

Doubled storm flaps on jackets give extra protection, as do fixed or detachable hoods and collars.

Jacket cuff

Elasticated storm cuffs are used for preventing water from running up your jacket sleeve

Trouser cuff

Trouser cuffs can be fastened with special studs or clips to make them more waterproof in heavy seas.

Jacket with hood

Double fold gusset

A heavy duty two-piece waterproof suit gives the best protection for coastal cruising or ocean voyaging. You will be on the deck in all sorts of weather conditions and your clothes must be proof against wind, rain and breaking seas. The two-piece suit usually consists of a hooded jacket and chest-high trousers with a double-fold gusset and adjustable shoulder straps. It is designed and cut with the minimum number of seams. Insulating layers are worn underneath.

Chest-high trousers

Hip-length jacket

Sailboat Hinged Mast Step

Neoprene construction

Bonded outer fabric Neoprene foam Fleecy lining

Long John suit

Wet suit

Most experienced sailors wear neoprene wet suits to combat loss of body heat in the water. The sleeveless "long John" type is the most popular as it does not restrict body movement. A hip-length jacket is usually worn over the top, and in cold weather, a hood, boots and gloves are worn.

Hip-length jacket

Neoprene construction

Bonded outer fabric Neoprene foam Fleecy lining

BASIC SAILING/Safety equipment

Safety equipment

It is very important to take proper safety precautions whenever you are sailing. All sailors must wear some form of additional buoyancy and there is a wide range of buoyancy garments to choose from. They divide into two groups: those which give the wearer some support in the water (known as buoyancy aids) and those which give total support and will turn an unconscious person face uppermost in the water (known as lifejackets). Most racing and inland sailors wear buoyancy aids (especially over wet suits) but many sea sailors choose lifejackets for added security. Buoyancy garments are worn over the top of all other clothing.

When working on the deck of a big boat, particularly on an ocean-going cruiser, you will need to wear a safety harness as well as your buoyancy aid or lifejacket. You will also need to make sure that your sailing boots or shoes have good non-slip soles (see Footwear, opposite) so that you have the maximum possible grip on a wet and sloping deck.

Cross section
Adjustable side straps

Automatically inflatable lifejacket

Floating position

Either of the two life-jackets illustrated (left) will, when inflated, automatically turn the wearer, whether conscious or unconscious, into a floating position, face uppermost.

Buoyancy aid

Mouth-inflated lifejacket

Lifejackets

The lifejacket shown below has about 7.2 kg (16 lbs) of inherent buoyancy. The lifejacket shown right has none.

Buoyancy garments

There are many different designs of buoyancy aid and lifejacket. but all types should conform to standard safety requirements. The type of buoyancy aid shown right is made of closed cell foam and will give a minimum of 7.2 kg (16 lbs) flotation. It is front fastened by a zipper and the side straps enable it to be adjusted for size. Lifejackets are either inflated automatically by pulling a cord attached to a gas cylinder or by mouth. Both types are pulled over the head and are secured by straps around the body, they are worn deflated. When fully inflated they should have 15.8 kg (35 lbs) of buoyancy.

Lifejackets

The lifejacket shown below has about 7.2 kg (16 lbs) of inherent buoyancy. The lifejacket shown right has none.

Mouth-inflated lifejacket

Automatically inflatable lifejacket

Buoyancy aid

Safety harnesses

These are designed to keep the wearer securely attached to the boat by means of a lifeline while working on deck. The lifeline must have a quick release clip

Standard webbing harness

Working lifejacket

A popular choice is the working lifejacket with incorporated harness (right). Many offshore crews prefer this self-contained lifejacket/harness as it is easy to put on and can be inflated manually, when needed, or automatically on a sudden contact with the water. The lifeline on this model clips to a large stainless steel "D" ring.

onto the harness. The free end is attached to special deck eyes, or to wire or webbing "jackstays" rigged along each side deck (see also Safety, page 308).

Standard webbing harness

This harness is held in place by adjustable shoulder straps. The belt can also be altered. It has a quick-release buckle fastening. Each crew member should adjust the harness to fit snugly over foul weather clothing and mark the boat with colored tape strips for easy identification in both daytime and night-time conditions.

Working lifejacket

Footwear

Whether you choose boots or shoes is a matter of personal preference, but your sailing footwear should have flat non-slip soles, which have maximum contact with the surface. Make sure that you choose a sole pattern which gives a secure grip.

Tread contact areas

Good

Good

Sole patterns

Sole patterns with deep wide troughs and many edges in contact with the surface give a far better grip than unbroken patterns with shallow troughs.

Good

Drown - proof ing

If you are swept overboard when not wearing buoyancy equipment, you can conserve heat and energy by using the following technique. Relax into a crouching position. Your body will then float naturally below the surface of the water. Move your arms to bring your head up to the surface to breathe. Then relax into the crouched position again. You can make a temporary buoyancy aid by removing clothing, tying the sleeves or legs and trapping air inside to make a floating bag.

Swim Suit Drawing

Rigging the boat

Before you can take your boat out on the water you will have to rig it. This means attaching all the equipment normally removed at the end of a day's sailing — principally the sails and rudder, but also any other loose equipment that might be lost or damaged if left in the boat. Whether the mast is removed or not will depend on the type of boat you are sailing and where it is kept. If you have to take your boat by road to the water, you will have to remove and replace the mast each time you sail.

If you are buying a completely new boat, or if for some reason the boat has been totally dismantled, you will have the additional

Mast rigging

On most boats the mast is supported by standing rigging attached to it at the hounds and to the boat at the chain plates. The spreaders prevent the mast bending and their inner ends are attached to a special mast fitting while the shrouds pass through the outer ends, secured with split rings and insulating tape.

Mast gate

Keel stepped masts are supported at the fore-deck by the mast gate, a strengthened slot in the aft end of the foredeck. closed by a simple latch.

Bow fitting

The bow fitting is the attachment point for fore-stay. jib and bow painter, and must be securely bolted into the foredeck of the boat.

Mast gate

Keel stepped masts are supported at the fore-deck by the mast gate, a strengthened slot in the aft end of the foredeck. closed by a simple latch.

Wiring Wind Sail Sailboat

problem of fixing the wires (known as standing rigging) to the mast. If so, it is best to seek advice from an expert.

The mast itself is usually made of wood or aluminum, which can be in the form of a simple tube or a complicated spar with built-in tracks for sails and other fittings. On basic sailing boats it is sufficient that the mast supports the sails, but on sophisticated racing boats the mast is an important element in determining the overall performance of the boat and is designed to be tensioned to suit particular sailing conditions (see Advanced sailing, pages 1 34—7).

Shroud tang

This fitting is riveted to the mast at the hounds and the shroud itself is attached by means of a shackle. Care must be taken to ensure that the shackle pin is inserted from the outside to prevent mast damage.

Shroud tang

This fitting is riveted to the mast at the hounds and the shroud itself is attached by means of a shackle. Care must be taken to ensure that the shackle pin is inserted from the outside to prevent mast damage.

Hounds

Mast Spreaders

Shrouds Forestay

Adjustable rigging link

The shrouds can be attached directly to chain plates, but adjustable rigging links permit the mast to be set up at different angles and tensioned accordingly.

Adjustable rigging link

The shrouds can be attached directly to chain plates, but adjustable rigging links permit the mast to be set up at different angles and tensioned accordingly.

Heel fitting

The heel fitting holds the mast in place in keel stepped boats. The three pulley blocks are for the main, jib and spinnaker halyards The mast heel can be positioned in the channel by moving the two retaining pins.

Heel fitting

The heel fitting holds the mast in place in keel stepped boats. The three pulley blocks are for the main, jib and spinnaker halyards The mast heel can be positioned in the channel by moving the two retaining pins.

Sailboat Mast Step Plate

Stepping the mast

Most modern masts are light but unwieldy so it is often easier if two people cooperate to step the mast, although it is possible to do it without help. Depending on the boat design, the mast is stepped into the bottom of the boat (keel stepped, shown below) or onto the foredeck (deck stepped, shown far below). Make sure when you raise the mast that there are no overhead power cables —they will kill you if the mast touches them.

Keel stepping-two people 1 Lay the mast gently in the boat lengthwise. The other person then attaches the shrouds to the fittings on the side decks.

2 Insert the mast heel in the heel fitting. The other person pulls on the forestay while you lift the mast upright

Deck stepping-one person 1 Lay the mast on the ground, with the leading edge uppermost, and attach the forestay and far shroud by shackling them.

2 Raise the mast to a vertical position adjacent to the mast step. Then check to see that none of the wires are fouling the mast.

3 The other person then fastens the forestay to the bow fitting and you lock the mast gate.

3 Lean the mast towards the attached shroud and forestay and place it in the mast step Then attach the other shroud.

Sailing Mast Shroud Line Channel

Deck mounted fitting

Deck stepped masts are positioned in a recessed fitting in the foredeck. Some boats have a second fitting to enable you to adjust the mast.

Boat equipment

Apart from the standing rigging and the items of equipment which are fixed to the boat, you should have the following items of loose gear stowed in the boat before sailing: bucket, hand bailer, sponge, mooring line, anchor, two oars or a paddle, two spare plugs, maps and spare clothes kept dry in sealed plastic bags. The inside of your boat must be kept free of obstructions so everything should be stowed tidily and secured to prevent it being lost in the event of a capsize. Although some boats have quite large stowage areas under the fore, aft and side decking, much of this space will be taken up with extra buoy ancy (see opposite).

Bucket and sponge

Hand bailer

Bucket and sponge

Hand bailer

Mooring line

Mooring line

Maps and spare clothes Spare plugs

Foredeck stowage area

Side deck stowing area

Stowing plan

Always try and organize equipment so that it is easy to remove when needed. Most of it can be stored under the foredeck, as shown, with the more unwieldy items, such as oars and paddles, under the side decking.

Foredeck stowage area

Hinged Boat Step

Automatic self-bailer

Hinged transom flap

Hand bailing

Automatic self-bailer

Hinged transom flap

Bailing

All open boats collcct water. Any water in the bottom of the boat should be removed as the weight of water slopping to the side makes the boat hard to handle. Bailing can be done either by hand (using a plastic bucket and scooping the water over the side) or by using a patent bailing system. Some boats are fitted with automatic self-bailers which suck the water out as the boat gathers speed. Racing boats usually have hinged flaps in the transom to let the water out. They are large enough to rid the boat of excess water very quickly.

Methods of bailing

Hand bailing must always be done over the leeward side of the boat. Self-bailers (right) drain automatically but transom flaps (below right) must be opened by pulling the elastic cord attachment._

Hand bailing

Paddle

Paddle

Oars Folding anchor

Folding anchors are useful as they take up less space, but a light Danforth anchor (see page 198) could be used if preferred.

Anchor (extended)

Anchor

Anchor (extended)

Anchor

Buoyancy

All boats need some form of additional buoyancy. This can cither be incorporated into the hull structure, as integral air tanks, or it can take the form of buoyant material, such as inflated plastic bags or polystyrene blocks, strapped to the hull. As important as the amount of buoyancy in the boat is its distribution.

Types of buoyancy

Buoyancy bags which are strapped into the boat should be checked from time to lime to make sure that they are attached securely. In the case of inflatable buoyancy bags, there must be enough air in them to float the boat adequately. Integral buoyancy tanks are fitted with bungs, which should be taken out when the boat is ashore so that the air can circulate. Alternatively they are fitted with inspection hatches.

Buoyancy at each end of the boat will float it in the event of a capsize, but ideally there should be sufficient additional side buoyancy to float the boat, when capsized, with the centcrboard about 30 cm (1 ft) above the surface of the water. When righted, the boat should only contain about 30 cm (1 ft) of water.

Polystyrene block buoyancy

Polystyrene block buoyancy

Inspection hatch in buoyancy lank

Distribution of buoyancy 1 Bow and stern only. The boat floats level when capsized and is easy to right, but there is too much water when righted.

Inspection hatch in buoyancy lank

2 Bow. stern and side. The boat floats level in the water when capsized, is easy to right and can be bailed out without difficulty.

3 Full length integral side tanks. The boat is free of water when righted but floats very high when capsized and is difficult to right.

Too little buoyancy

Correct buoyancy

Too much buoyancy

Hinged Boat Step

Too little buoyancy

Correct buoyancy

Too much buoyancy

Rigging the mainsail

The sails are normally stored in the sailbag and must be rigged on the boat each time you go sailing. The way in which the mainsail is rigged will depend on the way the boat is designed but it is always ttrst unrolled inside the boat, with the luff nearest the mast If the sail has to be reefed (see pages 92—3), this should be done after the sail has been hoisted. The point at which the sail is fully hoisted depends on the launching conditions (see pages 74-8 5).

Sail onto boom

The sail is iitted into a track on the upper side of the boom. It is important to make sure that the sail is fully stretched when fitting it onto the boom. There is normally a marker at the end of the boom to indicate how far the sail should be pulled out. The sail must be fastened securely in position at both ends.

1 Slide clew of sail into mast end of boom, pulling it to marker at opposite end of boom.

2 Secure tack of sail to mast end of boom by inserting tack pin through sail and boom.

Order of rigging

The order of steps in rigging a mainsail is normally as shown left, but different classes of boat may have other requirements.

1 Sail onto boom

2 Battens into pockets

3 Head into track

4 Boom onto gooseneck

5 Hoist mainsail

6 Attach boom vang

Hinged Mast Step

3 Pull foot of sail taut and fasten clew outhaul to boom and secure.

Battens

The battens act as sail stiffeners so that the shaped edge of the sail does not curl over. Most sails have three battens slotted or tied into stitched pockets.

Fiberglass tapered batten o e e A 666

Sail onto mast

Wooden batten with tie-ins

Plastic batten

Plastic batten

Fitting battens

Insert batten into pocket as far as possible and then push well down inside pocket to secure.

Feeding The Sail Head Into The Mast

The mainsail is inserted into the mast track but normally only partially hoisted (right) while the boat is being rigged: a fully hoisted mainsail would flap out of control and should, therefore, only be hoisted at or after launching.

Headboard into track

Shackle the head of the sail to the main halyard (normally on the right hand side of the mast). Then thread the headboard into the mast track. Make sure that the main halyard is neither twisted nor fouling the rigging. Pull on the halyard at the base of the mast while feeding the luff of the sail into the mast track. Fasten halyard around cleat.

The gooseneck

The gooseneck is a lilting on the mast which allows the boom to move in any direction. It is attached to the mast below the mast track and is either fixed or sliding. The gooseneck fits into a shaped fitting on the boom which allows the boom to be rotated to make reefing easier (see page 93). It is locked with a square shank to prevent it unrolling.

Class Catamaran Boom End Fittings

Fixed gooseneck

Sliding gooseneck

Sail Outer Boom End

Fit the upper end into the keyhole opening on the boom (above) and the lower end to the base of the mast (left).

Boom vang

The boom vang is a device to prevent the boom rising when the mainsheet is let out, particularly when jibing (see pages f>8-9). It is secured at one end to the base of the mast (or the kingpost on a deck-stepped mast), and to a keyhole fitting on the underside of the boom at the other. The type of boom vang varies with the class of boat. It can be tensioned as required. Two pulley blocks and a jammer provide a simple control.

Sailing Boom Mounting Bracket

Fixed gooseneck

Batten

Head

Mainsail halyard

Gooseneck

Gooseneck

Hoisting the mainsail

When the sail is hoisted enough to lift the boom out of the boat, insert the prong of the gooseneck into the fitting on the boom. Hold the boom steady while pulling the sail to the fully hoisted position (above). Cleat the halyard and coil the spare line (see page 1 71 for instructions), stowing it neatly on the cleat as shown (right).

Leech

Boom Clew

Mainsail halyard

Batten

Head

Mainsheet systems

The mainsheet is used by the helmsman to adjust and tension the sail correctly. There are two principal types of mainsheet system: aft or center, but center mainsheet systems arc used mainly on racing boats. Both types of system usually have pulley blocks to give the helmsman more control over the mainsail and they often also include a traveller, a track across the boat along which the lower pulley block slides. The mainsheet system is normally left rigged on the boat.

Center mainsheet

Center mainsheet

Aft mainsheet

Centermainsheet

There are several types of center mainsheet systems. Generally the lower pulley block is mounted on the centerboard casing and the upper blocks mounted individually onto the boom.

System with side mounting (viewed aft)
System with athwartships traveller (viewed forward)

Aft mainsheet

Aft mainsheet systems are found on most general purpose boats. They vary from very simple systems to much more sophisticated ones.

Basic system

This is the simplest form of aft mainsheet system and gives little control. It is usually found on very small boats.

Knotting the sheets

Knotting the sheets

Double overhand

Figure eight

Double overhand

Figure eight

The sheets must be finished off at the free end with a stopper knot such as a double overhand or figure eight knot (see page 329).

Hinged Mast Step

System with pulleys

This type helps the helmsman control the mainsheet but does not prevent the boom rising and the sail twisting.

System with transom traveller

This type gives the greatest control as the double pulley blocks run on a transom traveller which helps prevent the boom rising and the sail twisting.

Rigging the jib

The jib is normally attached to the forestay with patent fastenings known as jib hanks. The jib itself is controlled by sheets attached to the clew of the sail. The sheets, which are controlled by the crew, lead around the mast, inside or outside the shrouds, to fairleads mounted on the side decks or tanks. The jib sheets are used to tension the jib correctly. Various modifications can be made to the position of the fairleads so that the angle of the jib can be altered to suit different requirements.

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How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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Responses

  • ted
    How does a hinged deck mounted mast step plate work?
    7 months ago

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