Mistral Influence

From a single race back in 1953, by 1998 the event had grown into a week-long series of races based in the south of France at Saint-Tropez and finishing in Genoa, or sometimes Portofino, in Italy. The long-distance finale is the Giraglia Race itself. Nowadays, the series is called the Rolex Giraglia Cup. The mistral a strong, northerly wind characteristic of the region has a major bearing on race results and often forces retirements. In 1962, there were only 35 finishing boats from 58 starters....

Recreational Sailing

While work and survival came first in ancient times, we do have records of recreational sailing. In Egypt, for example, Cleopatra was carried down the Nile on a luxury vessel that From about 700 AD, the Vikings used these high-prowed boats to transport heavy loads for long distances. They were built on a long keel made from a single piece of wood and carried a single square sail. could nowadays only be described as a royal yacht. We know that the Norsemen built craft in which to race each...

Modern cruising yachts

Sailing Techniques

The term yacht is a generic name for sailing boats with accommodation, ranging from basic and cramped to luxurious and grand. Modern equipment ensures that a small crew should be able to manage a cruising yacht of around 36 ft (11 m) with relative ease. Most yachts are fitted with a heavily ballasted keel, which prevents capsizing and helps stabilize the boat. Virtually all yachts are fitted with inboard or outboard auxiliary engines. Most modern cruising yachts are made of glass-reinforced...

Arriving bow first

As the boat nears the pontoon, the crew secures the bow line ashore. The stern swings toward the pontoon. crew steps on to land with the bow line. Beware of the gap between boat and land. bollard to prevent the yacht drifting back on the wind or tide. 1 Approach the dock slowly against the direction ofthe wind or tide (whichever is stronger) to slow the boat. 4 The crew on board passes the stern line to the crew on shore, who secures it around a cleat. spare rope...

Sunscreen Protection

A cooling breeze may lead you to think the sun's rays are weak. In fact, you are exposed to damaging UV rays even in cloudy weather. The exposure is worsened by rays reflected off the water and sails. Always wear the highest-factor water-resistant sunscreen protection available on any exposed skin. Apply it liberally and Good-quality sunglasses are vital when sailing. Desirable features include a close-fitting, floatable frame with glare free, polarized lenses.

Crew roles

Sailing a yacht requires working as a team for the skipper and crew. This will ensure that all maneuvers such as leaving a mooring, hoisting sails, changing tacks, reefing, or entering a marina can be completed with maximum enjoyment and minimum stress. Most modern cruising yachts are designed to be managed by a small number of crew, and a yacht of around 30-40 ft 1 (0-12 m) may in theory be managed by a crew of two or even one. A crew of four should be able to handle such a yacht with ease....

Basic maneuvers

Learn the difference between getting stuck in irons, heaving-to, or just drifting with sails flapping and wind on the beam. Then practice moving off with the sails sheeted in to power the boat, and changing direction both upwind and downwind. You will then be in control. One of the simplest ways to stop the boat is to turn directly into the wind. The boat will then be head to wind or in irons. To get out of this situation, pull in the jib on one side, so that the wind blows on to the back of...

Reaching And Running

A broad reach with the wind aft of the beam is often the most enjoyable sailing course. With correct trim, the yacht should be at its most stable with the wind coming from this direction. It will be sailing at maximum speed without heeling too much and should be easy to steer. If bearing away from a broad reach on to a dead downwind course, the helmsman and crew must always be aware of the risk of an unplanned jibe. If there are waves, the yacht will tend to roll from side to side, making...

Launching and landing solo

Single-handed sailors can launch and land without assistance in most conditions, though you may need help to park or retrieve the trolley if there is an onshore wind. Plan the launch or landing carefully. Get the boat fully rigged, facing into the wind with the mainsheet slack, the rudder blade lifted, and the daggerboard lying flat in the cockpit. Avoid dragging the dinghy to the water this may scratch the hull. instead, use a trolley or ask for help. On the water, keep the dinghy pointing...

Simple trapezing

A trapeze allows the crew to stand on the side of the boat, suspended from a wire attached to the mast. This provides a lot more leverage and is less tiring than hiking out, as the crew's lower back is fully supported by the trapeze harness. It is also enormous fun. If necessary, adjust the length of the trapeze wire so it's easy to get hooked on while sitting on the side of the boat (see p.137). When you attach the trapeze ring, use the adjustable straps of the trapeze harness to pull the hook...

Sailing upwind

For sailing upwind you need an instinctive sense of the boat's capabilities. You need to feel that the boat is well balanced, sailing fast, and heading in the right direction, rather than heeling right over, slipping sideways, or pointing too close to the wind. Sailing as close as possible towards the wind is known as beating to windward. The sails are pulled in tight to the centerline, with the centerboard or daggerboard fully down to prevent the boat from sliding sideways. The helmsman steers...

Dinghies

Dinghy hulls are flat at the stern with a narrower, V-shaped bow to promote upwind performance and slice through waves. Dinghies do not have fixed keels but moveable daggerboards or centerboards. Unencumbered by the drag of a heavy fixed keel, the typical lightweight dinghy hull is able to start planing in moderate winds. Planing occurs when the hull lifts on to its bow wave and leaves its stern wave behind. As the boat accelerates on to the plane, its bow lifts clear of the water, its wake...

Ocean Racing iN Fresh Water

Lake Michigan is so vast that the Mackinac can properly be called a freshwater ocean race. After the inaugural 1898 event, the next race was not held until 1904 and then it ran annually to 1916. There was another hiatus until 1921, but since then it has not missed a beat. The prevailing wind direction means that the race most often starts under spinnaker, within a mile of downtown Chicago, the course being straight to Mackinac Island, Michigan, some 290 nautical miles (540 km) away. The race...

Unfurling the headsail

The roller-furler headsail makes cruising simple. It can be rolled out in seconds and rolled away again in a little more than a minute. this system also allows the skipper to reduce the size of the headsail for sailing in stronger winds. the traditional headsail system also used by racing yachts relies on carrying a number of different size sails for different wind strengths. However, this is not always ideal heavy sail bags take up a lot of storage space on a yacht, and it can be a tough job...

Preparing To Hoist

Sailing Techniques

Spinnakers look beautiful, but can be troublesome if you handle them wrongly The most important trick with these downwind sails is to keep both clew and tack level, while ensuring that the main power area of the spinnaker does not fly too high. The helmsman needs at least three experienced crew to fly the spinnaker one working on the foredeck and two in the cockpit. a day with a light wind, as shown in the photos on these pages, is perfect for getting accustomed to spinnaker handling. Until you...

Prop Walk And WiNDAGE

Sailing Tehnic

All yachts suffer from prop walk a paddlewheel effect from the propeller that pushes the stern sideways. Having a good feel for the strength of prop walk in different situations is the key to handling your yacht well under power at low speed. You can assess the degree of prop walk by putting the engine in reverse when moored. The stern will turn away from the direction of turbulence being thrown out by the propeller. You could also perform a tight power turn by alternating between forward and...

South Africa To Brazil AtlantiC OCEAN

The Cape Town to Brazil race across the South Atlantic is known by its traditional shorthand name, the Cape-to-Rio, but because of the frequently changing destination, it has been renamed by its South African organizers as the South Atlantic Race. Rapscalion III, skippered by American George Sticker, sails in light winds and calm waters against the wonderful backdrop of the Cape's Table Mountain. Not all of the journey is this peaceful.

DROPPiNg The Anchor

The anchor and chain are heavy and potentially dangerous, so beware of feet and hands when dealing with the anchor. Do not allow young children on the foredeck during this operation, and never let the chain or warp run out of control. The skipper should wait until the yacht has stopped or started moving backward before telling the foredeck crew to let go of the anchor. When sufficient chain or warp has been dropped for the depth of water (chain 4 x depth warp 6 x depth), reverse the engine to...

Cleating A Warp

Warp is the term for any ropes that secure or are used to move a vessel. Warps are secured to cleats onboard and led through fairleads (openings) to fixing points on shore. The warp at the bow is also known as the bow line and that at the stern is known as the stern line. 1 Always take at least one turn around a horn cleat when holding the yacht on a warp. 2 When the skipper Instructs you to tie off bow and stern lines, start by taking a second turn around the cleat. 3 Take the warp diagonally...

Good Holding

The sea bed must enable the anchor to gain good holding, and the most reliable substrates for this are mud and sand. Good holding also relies on the anchor chain or rope having a sufficient scope (the ratio of its length to the depth to the seabed) to be stretched out along the sea bed. To estimate how much is required, multiply the depth by four for chain and by six for warp. Take care in tidal areas, where the depth of an anchorage will vary according to the state of the tide. At low water,...

Buoyage and pilotage

When sailing by day, it is vital to identify buoys that provide a safe passage close to land. When sailing by night, lights with different colors and characteristics identify various lighthouses, buoys, beacons, and leading lights (which show the way into harbors). The International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) operates two systems of buoyage, A and B, in various parts of the world. The main difference between the two systems is that the color of the buoys identifying either...

Dinghy maintenance

A sailing dinghy operates in a harsh environment that can combine corrosive salt water, abrasive sand, and extreme stress from wind and waves. A little care, repair, and occasional replacement are necessary to ensure that you continue to enjoy good, trouble-free sailing. To minimize the need for repairs to sails, fittings, and hull, be sure to take particular care when storing and transporting your boat (see pp.164 165 and pp.166-167). Regularly check the tightness of screws, bolts, and...

Record Speed

Atlantic was a three-masted 187-ft (60-m) schooner. A record that endured 75 years was the remarkable feat of a time of 12 days 4 hours in the Transatlantic Race of 1905. There were few or no design rules for the race, though propellers were removed. Atlantic, designed by William Gardner and built in steel by Townsend and Downey, carried 18,500 sq ft (1719 sq m) of sail. Some of her success was attributable to skipper Charlie Barr, a Scot and three-time America's Cup winning skipper for the...

Using A Lazy Line

A lazy line along the starboard side makes it easy to pick up a permanent mooring line attached to a concrete block on the bottom. Here a bow fender has been rigged to prevent damage in case the boat moves forward and touches the jetty. The anchor is dropped from the stern. The boat motors forward and is secured by bow lines. The anchor is dropped from the stern. The boat motors forward and is secured by bow lines.

Dinghy Safety

Life Jacket With Crotch Straps

Wearing a buoyancy aid is strongly recommended for dinghy sailing. As its name suggests, it helps flotation in the water should the crew capsize. Buoyancy aids are recommended only for use by swimmers in sheltered waters when help is close to hand. Unlike lifejackets, they are not guaranteed to turn a person from a face-down position in the water. Flotation is measured in Newtons (N) 10N 2.2 lb (1 kg) flotation. You should always get professional advice when fitting a buoyancy aid, but as a...

SiXTiEs Challenges

It was during the 1960s that the record-breaking began. England's Francis Chichester challenged preconceptions about what was possible in terms of time and distance in 1966 67. Chichester made only one stop on a voyage from Plymouth and back via Sydney, which took a total of 226 days in the 54-ft (16.4-m) Gypsy Moth IV. Alex Rose, also British, set off soon after Chichester returned. He stopped twice in the 36-ft (10.9-m) Lively Lady and was slower than Chichester. Frenchman Alain Colas was...

World Weather

Weather is driven by the sun heating the Earth. As hot air rises, it is replaced by heavier, denser, cold air that holds less moisture. Air is drawn from high- to low-pressure areas and ocean currents also move hot and cold air to different parts of the globe. Large temperature differences between the poles and the equator, combined with the Earth Northeast trades Equatorial trough Southeast trades spinning, create bands of low pressure at the equator and mid-latitudes, with bands of higher...

Layering For Top Performance

All modern cruiser wear is based on the three-layer system of protective clothing. To keep warm in cold or wind, you must stay dry inside wind- and waterproof clothing that retains your body heat. Wet skin gets cold 30 times more quickly than dry skin, so your clothing must be able to transport moisture away from the skin, while holding dry, warm air close to the body and keeping the elements out. For yacht sailing, it must also be durable, reasonably lightweight, and non-restrictive as you...

Evolution Of Boat Design

George Lennox Watson was one of the first to set up a drawing office purely to design boats for sport and pleasure, in Glasgow in 1873. His Britannia was one of the most successful British yachts of all time. American brothers John B. and Nathanael Herreshoff, who established the renowned Herreshoff Manufacturing Company in Bristol, Rhode Island, in 1863, were also specialists. Between 1893 and 1914, the Herreshoff company designed seven advanced, powerful racing sloops. Five won the right to...

Olympic Classes

The iSAF selected these classes for 2008 One-person dinghy, men (Laser) One-person dinghy, women (Laser Radial) Two-person dinghy, men (470) Two-person dinghy, women (470) Heavyweight dinghy, mixed (Finn) Skiff, mixed (49er) Multihull, mixed (Tornado) Keelboat, men (Star) Keelboat, women (Yngling) the start is always directly into the wind, so that tacking to the first mark spreads the fleet. A good race depends on a good course having been laid. In the Olympics, the combination of short...

Advanced trapezing

Trapezing Sailing

On high performance skiff-style dinghies and catamarans it has become normal for both helm and crew to use trapezes, with the helm steering the boat on the wire. This provides double leverage and double fun. It is a challenge to be able to go out on a trapeze and helm at the same time. The first skill to master is going in and out on the wire without moving the tiller and changing course. A good method of achieving this is to lock the tiller extension by holding it down in position against the...

Launching A Life Raft

Ensure the hydrostatic release line is secured to the yacht before the raft is thrown overboard on the leeward side. You may need to give a sharp pull on the release line before the raft inflates In strong wind or rough sea, an inflated life raft cannot be towed or held alongside for long without damage. Board quickly, then cut free. Heavier crew should transfer first to make the life raft stable before other crew get in. Flares and electronic emergency gear should be protected from salt water...

Dinghy racing

There is nothing like dinghy racing to improve sailing and boat handling skills. It not only shows you how to sail as quickly and efficiently as possible, but also how to maneuver and avoid problems when sailing close to other boats. Sailing is a sport which should always be enjoyable. After you have mastered the basics of sailing around the bay, where do you go next More wind will certainly entertain you, because that's when all boats become more exciting but also more difficult to sail. Even...

Types of dinghy

There is a huge range of different dinghy designs and classes from which to select the boat that will best suit you, each offering a particular sailing experience for varying ages and abilities. The first decision to make is whether to sail single-handed or with a crew. Double-handers are sailed by a helmsman and one crew, who have both a mainsail and jib to drive the boat, with the option of a spinnaker for use downwind. It is rewarding to work as part of a team in which the crew plays an...

Cruising For Pleasure

Racing was for the elite, but the 19th century saw a spreading culture of recreational voyaging. Richard Tyrrell McMullen started cruising in English waters in 1850 and did much to encourage amateur yachtsmen to navigate and exercise sound seamanship. His book Down Channel (published in 1869) was the start of cruising literature. By 1880, there were enough serious sailors involved in cruising for the formation of the Cruising Club in England. Americans were also sailing far afield. Bernard...

The roles of helmsman and crew

The helmsman and crew work closely together when sailing, managing different parts of the boat, or deciding strategy. If you are sailing single-handed or flying a spinnaker, there will always be more than enough to keep you busy, particularly when it is a windy day. When there are two or more sailors in a dinghy, the helmsman is likely to act as skipper, deciding whether to tack, jibe, or head back to the shore. However, the crew may be equally able to take on this responsibility, particularly...

Olympic Racing

Sailing Techniques

Introduced in 1900, sailing is one of the oldest sports in the modern Olympics. The classes raced change over time, and future classes will reflect rising participation by women and greater athleticism of sailors. A continuing trend is towards smaller boats with fewer crew. Olympic racing is based on short events about 30 75 minutes in duration, with a one-design fleet racing a course that offers a variety of different sailing angles under the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) Racing...

Origins of sailing

Through the 19th and 20th centuries, recreational sailing spread throughout the world. Before that, sailing boats had been used for transportation, fishing, commerce, or as warships, for as long as we can trace the history of people living near water. Ancient Egyptians buried model sailing boats like this with their kings, to provide transport for their souls. Throughout history, sail and hull designs have varied according to coastal conditions and the availability of local materials. A simple...

Phuket And Islands

The hub of yachting in Thailand is the island of Phuket, which has three marinas and a number of well-sheltered bays like Ao Chalong. It is home to the King's Cup, a week of racing, and the Andaman Sea Rally, which offers you a rare chance to sail in company from Phuket to the Andaman Islands to the northwest. East and south of Phuket peninsula is an archipelago of islands peppering the sea. To the east is Phang Nga Bay, with the two large islands of Ko Yao Noi and Ko Yao Yai, and the smaller...

Returning to a beach

When you head back in to the beach, the basic essentials are to control the speed of your dinghy on the approach, before bringing it to a dead halt in water that is shallow enough for the crew to jump out and hold on, without grounding the boat. Leave the rudder and centerboard fully down for as long as possible to maintain steerage as you approach the shore. Moderate your speed by rolling the jib or letting it flap, with the mainsheet eased to depower the mainsail. As soon as the crew starts...

Launching from a beach

Getting afloat requires careful planning and preparation. Your target is to find the safest and easiest place to launch off the beach, make final adjustments to the dinghy in shallow water, get the crew on board, sheet in, and set off with minimum disturbance to anyone nearby. When possible, always choose a gently shelving beach with a sideshore wind. An onshore wind may create waves and make getting off the beach difficult. An offshore wind will get progressively stronger as you sail farther...

Shaping A Course

If leeway and tidal drift to windward cancel out, the course steered will match the ground track. If not, you will need to use a vector diagram to calculate how much to compensate for wind and tide. Tidal data can be obtained from a tidal atlas. You can assess leeway by taking a bearing on the wake of the yacht (see below). if leeway is 5 degrees, the water track (the course that will negate tidal effects) needs to be adjusted to windward by 5 degrees to produce the correct course to be...

Cardinal Marks

A cardinal mark warns of a nearby hazard. There are four types, one for each cardinal point of the compass, and each is clearly identifiable by its color and top marks during the day and by a sequence of white-light flashes at night. Cardinal marks are identical in both of the IALA buoyage systems. they are either pillar- or spar-shaped and are topped by two cones, or top marks, arranged differently on the four types. A starboard cone flashes green to mark the starboard side of the channel when...

Dinghy Sailing

Materials and displacement transformed dinghy design too. Plywood sped up building time, which generated a post-World War II dinghy boom. Flat panels and the simple curvature allowed by just four pieces of plywood were simple to construct. This particularly appealed to the do-it-yourself builder, the best example being the 11-ft (3.3-m) Mirror dinghy, designed by Jack Holt. Another development has been that of planing hulls. Planing means that the boat is able to rise above the theoretical...

Highlights

Famous competitors in the Middle Sea Race include the Englishman Sir Francis Chichester, the first man to sail single-handedly around the world. In 1978, Briton Bob Whitehouse Vaux set a course record in Mistress Quickly that stood until 1999, when Italian skipper Andrea Scarabelli demolished it in Riviera di Rimini, knocking over six hours from the time. In 2000, American Bob McNeil knocked a further 8 hours off the record in Zfiphyrus 1V, crossing the finish line after 2 days 16 hours 49...

JIBING sAFELY

When preparing for a jibe, best practice is to sheet the mainsail to the centerline so that the boom can swing through only a very small arc. Watch the boom, keep your head low, and do not go on the sidedeck if the yacht is or may be about to jibe. Always sheet in for the jibe. Never let the boom crash the full distance from one side to the other. on the instruction Prepare to jibe from the helmsman, the crew starts to pull in the mainsheet until the boom is close to the centerline. The sheet...

Sailing a catamaran

Catamaran Sailing Techniques

If the wind is strong enough to lift the windward hull, a catamaran will always sail on the apparent wind meaning that speed forward through the water tightens the angle of the wind so that it always appears to be blowing from ahead, irrespective of the course sailed. The principal requirement of catamaran sailing is to build up apparent wind. When beating upwind, do not try to sail as close to the wind as possible, as with a conventional dinghy. Instead, bear off a few degrees to power up the...

WHERE To BE on DECK

The cockpit is the safest and most comfortable place for the crew while sailing. If the boat is heeling, try to sit on the windward side with your feet braced. It is also safest to move along the windward side deck away from the water. Identify handholds when moving around. Only go on the side decks or foredeck when necessary. Keep the harness line tether as short as possible and your weight low when moving around the boat. Always wear deck shoes or sailing boots, beware of slippery areas, and...

Dinghy racing courses

All dinghy races have the same elements and rules, designed to ensure that everyone enjoys safe sailing while battling for position around the course. Marker buoys (marks) indicate where to turn, with start and finish lines marked by a committee boat. Most races have a start line laid at 90 degrees to the wind direction on the day. A committee boat at the starboard end of the start line manages the countdown to the start. The object is for boats to cross the line as soon as possible after the...

Introduction to catamarans

Razor Speed Sailing Boat

Small beach cats, such as the Hobie 16 featured in this section, require slightly different techniques from sailing a dinghy. While all the principles of wind, balance, and trim are the same, Go for speed is always the golden rule for catamaran sailors. Look at the photographs on this page, and it will become clear why catamarans can sail so fast. Both crews are flying the windward hull, with just the leeward hull in the water. That super-slim hull has much less wetted surface area than any...

Sailing By Night

Managing a yacht on a night passage requires additional skills. The crew need to work in a watch system, with two or three in charge of the boat for a specific period, while the rest of the crew are off watch and may choose to sleep down below. The traditional watch system of four hours on, four hours off can be modified to suit the crew and circumstances. On a one-night passage, a considerably shorter watch may be preferred. Before sailing into the night, the skipper should ensure that all...

Jclass Yachts

If any class of yacht epitomized the era it was the J-Class. These boats were also built to a formula, but on a different scale with an overall length of more than 120 ft (36.5 m), the waterline length had to be 75-87 ft (22.8-25.9 m). With a Bermudan rig (see Rig Designs, pp.46 47), the sail area was not limited, but the draught was limited to 15 ft (4.5 m). Only ten new J-Class yachts were built, six in the USA and four in Britain Enterprise, Weetamoe, Whirlwind, Yankee, Shamrock V, Rainbow,...

Mooring a dinghy

Crew Sailing Yacht Bow Position

You need good timing and skillful boat handling to moor a dinghy The helmsman must bring the boat to a halt alongside a mooring buoy and hold it there for long enough to give the crew time to grab hold of the buoy and attach the mooring line. The helmsman should approach at low speed while maintaining full steerage and control. Use whichever element is strongest wind or tide to stop the boat alongside the buoy, with sails fully depowered. To assess the strength of wind direction or tide, look...

Catamaran launching and landing

Catamaran Trolley Slip

Two hulls mean that a special technique is needed to launch or retrieve a catamaran on its dolly. Once on the water, the catamaran provides the crew with an extremely stable platform as they prepare to leave the beach or come in from sailing. As with any dinghy, you should rig the sails of a catamaran as close to the water as possible. A catamaran dolly has two wheels on a central axle, with supports for the twin hulls. To put the dolly in place, one crew lifts a bow while the other pushes the...

DROPPiNg The SpiNNAKER

Be careful that none of the spinnaker spills over the side while it is being lowered. if it does, the spinnaker will drag in the water and the foredeck crew will find it very difficult to get it back on board. keeping the spinnaker under control relies on the cockpit crew lowering the halyard at the correct speed for the foredeck crew, who will be gathering the sail and bundling it down the forehatch. during this maneuver, the helmsman should make sure that the spinnaker remains blanketed by...

Packing up a dinghy

If you sail in salt water, you will have to carry out rigorous cleaning before packing up your dinghy When everything is clean and dry, the sails should be carefully folded and packed into sailbags for storage. Careful packing and storage will prolong the life of your equipment. Hose down the boat every time you come ashore. If the water is not rinsed off the boat after use, salt can corrode unprotected metal and leave a trail of tiny abrasive crystals in the stitched seams of a sail. Leave...

Storing and transporting a dinghy

Closed Transom Dinghy Drain

You can leave a dinghy on its dolly at the beach or in a boat park or marina and transport it by road on a trailer. For peace of mind and for everyone's safety, the boat should be tied down as securely as possible, with top and bottom covers for maximum protection. When leaving a dinghy unattended, you may need to remove sails, foils, and all loose fittings dinghy gear is expensive to replace and theft does unfortunately happen. Pull halyards tight before you leave the boat when it is windy,...

Basic knots

You only need a few knots for sailing, but those knots must be fail-safe and also easy to untie. You should practice all the knots shown until you know for sure that you can tie them securely every time whether you are in a hurry, in the dark, or on a boat that is rolling and pitching. This is the basic stopper knot used for sailing, which ensures that the end of a rope cannot run out through a block or fairlead. Simple and effective, it is typically used for securing the end of a sheet. the...

Using the rudder

Fishing Vector From Above

Changing direction on a dinghy or yacht bears little resemblance to steering a car. The rudder is likely to be the primary control when you want to change direction, but it must be used with secondary controls, such as the sail trim, and the boat has to be balanced. A dinghy rudder assembly has four main parts the rudder blade, rudder stock, tiller, and tiller extension. The blade is attached by hinges to the stock, which is in turn attached to the transom of the dinghy. The tiller is attached...

Effects Of The Land

Most sailors sail close to shore during the warmest months, when the weather is mainly settled, producing a regular daily cycle of local onshore toward the land and offshore away from the land breezes. The strength of a sea breeze a daytime onshore breeze or a land breeze a nighttime offshore breeze is affected by the heat of the sun and by other winds created by other pressure systems gradient wind . An offshore gradient wind might cancel out a developing sea breeze, while an onshore wind...

GOOD iSland SaiLiNg Conditions

The regatta has outgrown its 1982 origins as a local Mediterranean event. Of the 58 boats in the first event, only 35 were Spanish. This mirrored the expansion of the island of Mallorca as a summer destination for yachtsmen from all around Europe. The Bay of Palma is one of the best course areas in Europe in the summer season, the wind and sun producing optimum sailing conditions. Like other event organizers, the Real Club Nautico has been subject to pressures from the changing rating rules...

Stay cool not cold

It may be hot, but if the wind is up and your boat is fast, wind-chill will cool your body down. Always wear a wetsuit, particularly if there is any chance of capsizing. while sailing you may be exposed to cold weather and possible injury unless you wear sufficiently protective clothing. Your extremities, such as hands, feet, and head, require particular protection from Wetsuit may be worn beneath hiking shorts if desired Neoprene dinghy boots keep feet warm The best spray tops are windproof,...

Jibing a dinghy

When you jibe, the stern turns through the eye of the wind, changing your downwind direction from starboard to port jibe shown here or vice versa. The mainsail swings in a wide arc across the boat and is always fully powered, so jibing is challenging in strong winds. The object of jibing is to change course from one tack to the other from starboard to port tack in the picture sequence here while sailing downwind. This requires precise control of the tiller, ensuring a smooth turn with the wind...

Side forces and leeway

The sails that drive a dinghy or yacht have a direct relationship with the centerboard or keel underwater. It is this that prevents the boat from being blown sideways, and transforms wind force into forward drive. Boat designer and crew must keep the relationship in balance. In wind, a flat-bottomed boat slips sideways in the water, known as making leeway, unless the wind blows directly from behind. An underwater foil provides lateral resistance to this sideslip. On a dinghy, the foil is a...

Rigging a spinnaker

Spinnaker Rigging Sailboat

The spinnaker is a powerful sail that provides plenty of downwind sailing fun. The asymmetric spinnaker shown here is the spinnaker of choice for all modern dinghy classes, having taken over from the traditional and more complex symmetrical spinnaker. When not in use, a modern spinnaker is stowed, ready rigged, in a chute that runs the length of the foredeck and back toward the cockpit. The spinnaker halyard is a continuous loop of rope led through the spinnaker chute to the bow of the dinghy,...

Contents

Rig designs 46 Hulls and keel design 48 Anatomy of a dinghy 50 Anatomy of a yacht 52 Dinghy wear 54 Cruiser wear 56 Footwear and accessories 58 safety equipment 62 Wind and sail 66 side forces and leeway 68 Points of sailing 72 Basic maneuvers 74 sail trim 78 Trimming the boat 80 Rules of the road 84 Ropework 86 Basic knots 88 Types of dinghy 94 Types of keelboat 96 Rigging a two-handed dinghy 98 Rigging a single-handed dinghy 104 Launching from a beach 110 Returning to a beach 112 Launching...

Wind and sail

If the dinghy or yacht designer has done a good job, learning to master a modern sailing boat should be straightforward. However, it does require some understanding of the aerodynamic forces involved. To drive a boat forward using wind and sails, the crew must achieve a balance between trimming the sails correctly, resisting the sideways force on the rig, and counteracting the heeling force on the boat. Whether there is one crew, two, or several, they must work with the wind and the boat, as a...

Rules of the road

Avoiding collisions is a priority afloat. The rules of the road are simple and straightforward to put into practice, ensuring that all types of sailing boats, powercraft, and commercial shipping can share crowded areas of water in complete safety. there are various rules you must be familiar with before you sail. First, boats under sail generally have right of way over boats under power. However, boats under sail should give way to commercial vessels engaged in fishing or those constrained by...

Trimming the boat

Lightweight dinghies and high-performance racing keelboats are extremely responsive to the position of the crew. Weight needs be moved fore, aft, and sideways to ensure the boat is correctly trimmed for changes in direction, wind strength, and conditions on the water. The hull of a dinghy has to be trimmed so it does not drag or sink. All modern dinghies perform best if they are sailed upright. If you let them heel, the side of the boat will dig in the water, the centerboard will lose grip, and...

Rigging a singlehanded dinghy

Scott Sprague Boat Designs

Popular single-handed dinghies such as the Laser, Topper, and Pico all have similar rigging, which is simple and quick to assemble. With practice, you should be able to get one of these boats rigged and ready to sail in about 15 minutes, though you may need help lifting the mast. The principal feature of all these dinghies is that they have no shrouds or forestay to support the mast. Instead, the mast is self-supporting, with the lower part fitting into a tubular mast step in the foredeck. The...

Index

Abandoning ship 272-273 accidents 264 Adriatic Sea 291 airflow 78 308-309 America's Cup Class ACC 308 anchor anchoring 86 dinghy 163, yacht 212, 214-215, 216, 217, 261 anchor chain rope 214, 216, 217 anchorage, choosing an 214-215 Andaman Sea 297, 298, 299 anemometer 233 anticyclones 228 Antigua 278, 279 Antigua Classics Week 279 Antigua Sailing Week 279, 313 apparent wind 67, 132, 144, 147 ARC Atlantic Rally for Cruisers 280 Around Alone 325 Atlantic Ocean racing 312, 315, 318-320, sailing...

Sail trim

Trimming sails to the correct angle to the wind is a principal skill of good sailing. If a sail is let out too far under-sheeted , it will flap, reducing forward drive. If pulled in too tight over-sheeted , airflow over both sides will be disrupted, stalling the sail and slowing the boat. When a sail is trimmed at an angle to the wind, air separates at the sail's forward edge and flows over both sides. Air flows faster over the longer distance around the leeward facing away from the wind side...

Tacking and jibing a catamaran

Ocean Going Catamarans

Catamarans tend to tack and jibe more slowly than monohull dinghies, but provide better stability. This is particularly noticeable when jibing, which is comparatively easy to control. The technique for both maneuvers is very different from a center mainsheet dinghy. In a catamaran, the helmsman should steer into the tack with the rig powered up and the boat sailing at speed. Steer carefully through the tack be aware that slamming the rudders over can make them act as brakes. Both crew should...

Anatomy Of A Dinghy

The crew adjusts the angle and power of the sails using sheets and control lines. The boat is steered using the rudder foil. This high-performance rig features a huge asymmetric spinnaker to maximize offwind performance and a laminate mainsail. Racks on each side of the hull provide the crew with increased leverage on the trapeze.

Small keelboats

Ballasted Dinghy

Small keelboats range in length from around 20 30 ft 6 9 m . Unlike dinghies, they incorporate a ballasted keel that prevents them from capsizing. Unlike yachts, most keelboats do not have accommodation and are designed purely for daysailing. Most small keelboats have the advantage of increased stability due to the extra weight of the keel. However, many different keelboat designs include highperformance sports boats with a very large sail area, which can certainly provide exciting sailing. The...

Meter Class Yachts

It was at the first conference of the IYRU that the Meter Rule was devised, for 6-, 8-, and 12-Meter Class yachts. In each case, the Meter Class measurement is not a length, but the result of a formula representing a computation of waterline length, beam, draft, freeboard, and sail area, with certain other restrictions also taken into account. These are therefore not one- design classes, but boats built to conform to rules which make racing even-handed without stifling innovative design....

Essential Information

CLIMATE Changeable may be fine and warm in sheltered spots when cold and windy off the headlands. WHEN TO VISIT April to early October most popular between June and August. DoN'T MIss Falmouth Regatta, National Maritime Museum at Falmouth. MooRING Marinas in major ports, berth to quay, or alongside fishermen in smaller ports fees will be charged. Anchoring in rivers and among the Scilly Isles. favorite anchorages The Helford River port of Fowey, at the mouth of the Fowey River. don't forget...

Ropework

Ropes of all kinds are vital for sailing and securing a boat. ropes for different purposes on the boat, all have different dimensions and requirements, with the colored outer core of modern synthetic rope helping to identify its use in the cockpit or on deck. A core of twisted or braided strands is encased in an outer braided sheath for protection and extra strength. The strength of rope depends on the materials, construction method, and diameter. lightweight braided ropes are exceptionally...

Dropping the mainsail

Dropping is a reverse procedure of hoisting the mainsail. It is equally important to leave plenty of time and space on the water, with the yacht pointing directly into the wind and the engine running as the mainsail is lowered and stowed. Keep the boat head to wind while dropping the mainsail. Drop the mainsail in plenty of time, before mooring or entering a marina. choose an area with plenty of space and yacht should be pointing into the wind throughout the drop, moving ahead at slow speed...

Types of keelboat

Small keelboats with a ballasted keel or centerplate tend to be considerably more stable than dinghies. Depending on the size of the boat, the cockpit may provide comfortable space for as many as five crew, with a choice between traditional or modern cruisers and racers. A small keelboat may prove to be the best choice for cruising. It will be stable enough to be left at a mooring or be anchored overnight. Unlike dinghies, keelboats cannot capsize because a heavy keel or ballasted centerplate...

History

Having sailed in the 1924 Bermuda Race see p.312 , Englishman Weston Martyr recognized the skill, courage and endurance needed for the sport of yacht racing. Martyr then joined E. G. Martin, who had bought the French Le Havre pilot yacht Jolie Brise, and Yachting World magazine's editor, Malden HeckstallSmith, in organizing Leopard of London, a 98-ft 29.5-m yacht, rounding the Fastnet Rock during the Rolex Fastnet Race 2005, in a race characterized by light winds. a comparable yacht race in...

Tacking a dinghy

When you tack, you turn the bow of the boat through the eye of the wind and then continue sailing, changing your direction from starboard to port tack shown here or vice versa. This basic maneuver must be used to sail to any point directly upwind. If sailing a two-handed dinghy, the crew has a simple role keeping the jib sheeted in until the wind catches on the other side, causing it to back, which helps push the bow around. As soon as it is clear, the boat will complete the tack and the crew...

Elements Of RiG DESiGN

All rig designs, whether old or modern, incorporate one or more masts and one or more sails. Other spars poles in the rig might include booms, which extend the foot of a sail, yards, which support square sails from a mast, and bowsprits, which support a sail beyond the bow. This rig has a long bowsprit, two foresails, a large gaff mainsail, and may have a topsail. A similar rig to the cutter, the gaff ketch has a small mizzen mast and sail forward of the rudder head. A schooner is rigged with...

Rigging a twohanded dinghy

Vago Main Sheet Block

Every dinghy is rigged in a slightly different way and you should familiarize yourself with the manufacturer's instructions for the dinghy you are handling. The rigging sequence shown here is an example of how to rig a typical two-handed dinghy. select a flat location with the dinghy parked securely on its trailer and sufficient space all around. Check for overhead cables and other obstructions. Lay out the mast, boom, and rigging components. The mast may be fitted with a separate wire forestay...