## The Age of Exploration Carrack and Caravel

In the early fifteenth century the pace of ship development in the Atlantic tradition began to pick up this was the period with the most intense development of sailing ships. I hinted earlier about the potential for ship growth in size and development should the northern clinker and the Mediterranean carvel designs fuse. Such a mixing began with the Crusades. Many northern knights headed for the Holy Land in their double-ended clinker-built ships, taking them into Mediterranean ports en route....

Torque applied about the longitudinal axis leads to heeling, and if the heeling angle is large enough, a boat may capsize. This is considered to be undesirable among all the boat owners I know, and so hull stability is taken to be a matter of some importance. Here, stability refers to the ability of a boat to right itself after having been heeled over by, say, a sudden gust of wind or a sudden change of course. We would like to know how much our boat can heel over before capsizing, and we would...

The front-cover difference between clinker-built hulls and carvel-built hulls is illustrated in figure 1.5. The front cover does not represent the whole book, however, but like hull planks, or strakes, is what you see on the outside. Carvel-building probably came firstt and originated in the The reason for this behavior is discussed in chapter 5. tCarvel-built vessels were standard for the first millennium BCE in the Mediterra- eastern Mediterranean region. It was a natural extension of the...

## Time to Rock and Roll

Designing boat hull shapes for stability involves a number of trade-offs. Not least is the comfort of the crew and passengers. Not only must our Figure 5.8. The radius of gyration (dashed circles) about the center of gravity, CG (small circles), of a boat hull for different hull shapes. If the hull is a hollow cylinder (a), the radius of gyration is just the cylinder radius. For a solid cylinder (b) the radius of gyration is only 71 of the cylinder radius. For different boat hull cross sections...

## The Last Days of Sail

With hindsight we can see that, even without rough seas, unfavorable economics, and civil wars, steam engines alone would have killed off the clippers. James Watt made his major breakthrough in steam engine design the same year that HMS Victory was built the age of steam locomotives coincided with the clipper revolution, and it was only a matter of time before steam engines replaced sails to drive ships. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, ships were made of wood and powered by wind by...

## East Indiamen and Others

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries several western European maritime trading nations established colonies or trading monopolies with peoples in South and East Asia. Luxury trade goods such as spices, silks, works of art, and, increasingly, tea were brought from India, China, Japan, and Indonesia to be sold in the markets of Europe. The Dutch, French, and British granted trading monopolies to their own East Indies companies, who operated very profitably though inefficiently as a...