If the rig does go over the side, there is still usually lots of stuff on board with which to make a jury rig (see the comments of Skip Allen on page 186).
If the spar is stepped on the keel, the odds are there will be at least a stump of the spar as high as the old gooseneck, which makes a good starting point.
Survey what is available in the way of spars. Booms, spinnaker poles, even reaching struts can be used to make a mast. If there are two spinnaker booms these can often be tied together at the head, and then lashed to the shrouds. This bipod is then pushed into position (or lifted a little way off the deck and then winched vertical. This is a very stable rig (with head and back stays of course) and relatively easy to install.
Using a mast stump (upper drawing) is the best way to start a jury rig. A broken piece of spar, spinnaker boom, or even the main boom can then be tied or banded to the stump. Sails are then reefed by tieing the corners as required. If there are two spinnaker booms aboard, they can be used as a bipod (middle drawing). Often using a high aspect jib with the luff towards the deck, as shown, is a simple way to generate some sail area.
A broken boom can often be temporarily repaired using a spinnaker pole or reaching strut. The "splint" is applied with a banding tool or with multiple seizings of light line. You can cut timber or plywood into strips for use as splints, and tie them on with "constrictor" knots as well.
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Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.