Blueprints For Wood Projects
This little cruiser, first built of plywood in 1958, became available in fiberglass in the mid-1960s. At various times she was available either with twin or single fin keel, and with either a two-berth or four-berth layout. Best features She probably would be among the least expensive sailboats to buy on the used market, if you could find one in reasonable condition. Worst features Her shallow keel and relatively high wetted surface keep her from being fast or weatherly, though her comps are probably not much better. She has the shortest waterline (slow under power), the smallest cockpit, and the least space below among her comps. Her old-fashioned hard-chine, tortured hull shape originally dictated by the fact that she was to be built of flat sheets of plywood, give her a strange look that some would call ugly.
Materials and construction the hull and structural components shall be manufactured of 5000 or 6000 series aluminum alloy suitable for use in seawater, except that stainless steel fasteners may be used. Use of wood shall be limited to plywood suitable for exterior exposure, where necessary for backing plates, reinforcement of transoms designed for outboard motors, and similar components. The punt shall be fitted with a minimum of two handles on each end of the punt (for handles total). Handles shall be well rounded to prevent injury to or undue stress on hands. Handles shall be secured to the punt with through-bolts or solid rivets, or may be integral to the hull. Tubular rivets, pop rivets, or self-tapping screws shall not be used to secure handles. Handles shall as a minimum be strong enough to support the entire weight of the punt when suspended from a single handle.
And vinylester resin in the outer skin. structural bulkheads are marine plywood and liners are used in the cabin top and for furniture support. X-Yachts' customary galvanized-steel grid laminated into the bottom of the hull takes up rig loads and serves as internal keel support. It also adds stiffness, which is welcome for upwind performance.
Ensure that all bolt holes remaining after removal of existing fender are plugged to prevent water intrusion into the
B Steel and Aluminum Surfaces shall be dry, clean, and free of corrosion, mill scale, rust, oil, tars, paint, and other surface contamination. The surface shall be cleaned by using an electric grinder, or an electric sander with 50- to 60-grit paper. Immediately after cleaning and before a new attack of corrosion begins, prime the cleaned surface by brushing a uniform, complete hiding coat of PRC Primer 420-Marine (refer to paragraph 583-22.214.171.124 for primer mixing instructions). c Wood Cut back weathered or treated wood surfaces to clean, dry, solid wood. New wood with smooth surfaces shall be sanded lightly to ensure penetration. c. Wood Surfaces PRC Primer 4-Marine shall be used to prime wood surfaces. It is a one-part, brown colored solution of thin syrup consistency ready to use as packaged. Apply to previously prepared wood by brush or spray and allow to dry at least 4 hours or until tack free, but not more than 24 hours.
Move with us now to the magic of Taiohae Bay in the Marquesas Islands. Linda and I walk to the beach carrying our new, custom-made Marquesan ukulele, a marvelous four-string cross between a banjo and guitar, carved from a solid chunk of hardwood. Even though the beach break is miniscule I wrap the uke in plastic.
The decks are a cored structure of cedar and Airex foam, as is the cabin top. The deck is laid up over beams, while the cabintop has no framing. Wherever hardware or deck fittings are located, the foam is replaced with a solid wood core. The fiberglass covering runs from railcap to railcap, to ensure seamless decks and complete watertightness. The foam-core construction is not only strong and light, but also has good insulating properties that will help to make the boat more comfortable to live aboard.
And one-design racer, especially in the Monterey Bay area, but in the downward economy, which came shortly after her introduction, business suffered, and eventually Ericson began building her until that firm too went by the wayside. Best features An open stern makes the transom-mounted outboard engine easier to manage. A nice finish below includes Bruynzeel plywood with satin finished regina mahogany veneer, and a teak and holly cabin sole. The companionway step can do double duty as a cocktail table. A bench seat athwartships between twin Igloo coolers is a unique and handy arrangement. Worst features None identified.
Originally a centerboard racer-daysailer designed in 1945 and known as the Rhodes 19, in the 1950s O'Day switched from molded plywood to fiberglass, added a cabin and voila the fiberglass Mariner was conceived. After O'Day left the scene, Stuart took over production, which it has continued. The boat is available in both centerboard and iron keel versions, and as a two-sleeper (V-berth) or four-sleeper (V-berth plus quarterberth). Drawings in the Stuart sales brochures appear to have a narrower entry than the original Rhodes design, but Stuart tells us it's their drawings that are slightly inaccurate, not the boats. We'd ask around before buying to determine if the newest Mariners can be raced as a one-design class against the older O'Day boats, if that's what you have in mind. Since Mariners have been around a long time, you can find them in all age
Let's examine in more detail the unusual features of this design. Her construction, which can only be viewed as cold-molded, calls for lVS-inch by l'X-inch glued-strip cedar planking (resorcinol-glued with bronze Anchorfast edge-nailing), covered on the outside with a fore-and-aft layer of yA-inch by 2-inch Honduras mahogany strips, glued and nailed to the cedar. There are no sawn or bent frames, but rather plywood bulkheads with oak and mahogany margin pieces to which the planking is glued and screwed. All interior joinerwork shelves, bunk tops, cabinets, counters, etc. is to be considered structural, and is securely glued and fastened to the planking as stiffening members. The backbone is of laminated oak, which makes a virtually one-piece centerline structure to which all planking and floor timbers are glued. The result is a monocoque hull of great strength, rigidity, and watertightness. This construction is much less labor-intensive than today's typical cold-molded construction...
Both Karl Stambaugh and Phil Bolger started with similar stacks of plywood and a drawer full of traditional ideas. Both came up with trailerable pocket cruisers that measure 19 feet 6 inches on deck. There the similarity ends. Stambaugh's Mist awakens memories of plywood sloops that filled the pages of Popular Whatever magazines in the years following World War II. But, in some ways, she's quite different. Many of the early-1950s hulls were designed aggressively for sheet construction. That is to say, every ounce of twist had been wrung out of their carefully developed developable shapes. Stems and rails were faired into the hulls to the extent that they virtually disappeared. In order for strongly flared hull sides to mate well with a nearly plumb stem, some twist should be worked into the plywood sheets up forward. Alternatives include increasing the rake and or curve of the stem (particularly near its heel) and or tolerating less flare. Stambaugh chose to twist the plywood. As a...
Nearly any seaworthy blue-water sailboat is capable of cruising successfully in the high northern and southern latitudes. Alvah Simon, for instance, spent a year in the Chilean channels aboard Zenie P., his 31-foot plywood Golden Hind, and Willy Kerr took his production Contessa 32 to Baffin Island in the north
REPAIRS Marine plywood and a useful selection of boat timber is hard to find beyond Cyprus until Singapore is reached. However, basic repairs to hull and machinery can be carried out in all ports, although finding professional labour might prove difficult. Sail repairs cannot be effected until Singapore although certain awning and upholstery shops can often help out. Glues and resins are difficult if not impossible to locate in the Red Sea, India and Sri Lanka suggesting that these be carried aboard from the Mediterranean.
You'll meet with powerful arguments in favor of three layers of Ve-inch plywood, glued together, or laminations of thin mahogany, bent in cold and set in glue. I still prefer to do the job in one thickness, with stock that has been steam-bent and dried on a form, and fitted, plank by plank, from the bottom up. I can get a better fit, in far less time, and have no worries about hidden gaps where rot could start. The individual planks can be held in place with a reasonable number of large, durable fastenings, instead of a multitude of small ones. The miter seam can be flooded with poison and caulked snug. The planks can be planed and sanded to shape with no fear of working through the outer layer. Five small problems hold less terror than two very large ones. While you are in the mood, do the same fairing job on the sternpost (see Figure 11-5). This member tapers from 5-inch siding at the rabbet to 2-inch siding at the line of the rudder. Shape a flat wedge, of...
The builders, Eastsail Yachts of Bow, New Hampshire, advertise this as a rugged, trailerable, pocket cruiser of traditional lines carrying a full keel and full headroom, designed for the long voyage, that is, extended offshore cruising. That puts her squarely in the same oceangoing category with two of her comps, the Vertue and the Fisher. The Eastsail is what amounts to a custom boat, with the owner specifying rig, interior design, wood trim (teak, mahogany, or plain white paneling with minimal hardwood trim), number of berths, tankage, motor power (small inboard diesel or a four-stroke outboard mounted under the lazarette hatch),
Let's briefly look at the past, at the era before multihull mass production. The acceptance of multihulls in the '60s and '70s suffered tremendously due to the home-built boats of that time. Plywood and fiberglass, still excellent materials today, were the norm then. Even though these had an even greater forgiveness to building inconsistencies than today's high-tech composites, enough ill-constructed multihulls were built to give them a bad image. Many beautiful Pivers
The so-called 24-foot Antares hull, actually 23-feet long on deck, appears to be pulled out of the same mold as the older traditional Sovereign 23 (page 256), with a more streamlined deck. The 1986 Sovereign Yachts sales brochure indicates that the Antares is a much less expensive but still not inexpensive, no-frills version of the original Sovereign 23, with no fancy woodwork below and less hardware on deck (e.g., no genoa tracks and cars). Best features Headroom and cabin space are both better than the Irwin, but not as good as the traditional Sovereign
Designer Ray Richards of Seattle drew this quarter ton racer-cruiser for Howard Smitty Smith owner of Ranger Fiberglass Boats of nearby Kent, WA. The boat is unusual in several ways. First, her topsides, though constructed of fiberglass, appear to be made of two panels of flat plywood bent to her sheer, giving her the look of a hard-chine plywood vessel. Second, though only 24 feet long, her sales brochure says that her sizable galley can accommodate both a refrigerator and a gimballed range with oven. (We doubt many boats sold had either convenience especially the refrigerator, which would require frequent charging of the batteries.) Third she has full flotation, rare in a boat this size. Best features Her outboard motor well is placed on her centerline, forward of the rudder in the cockpit, giving good access to the helmsman and, because the prop wash immediately impacts the rudderblade, good control at slow speeds around dock or mooring. Worst features That hard-chine look will not...
The third class staterooms were either a double or four-berth design with mahogany bedsteads. The upper berths were the Pullman folding type. All beds had internally sprung mattresses. There were polished hardwood built-in wardrobes, dressing tables and chairs. Every cabin had a washbasin with hot and cold water, mirror and overhead electric light. The floors were of a korkoleum purple marble design with a bedside rug and curtains of grey, blue and orange hues.
Joining plywood to make longer panels. Scarfed joints provide strength and give a project a clean look. The two-piece tool can be attached to most circular saws by drilling holes in the saw's base and fastening the guide and guard to it with bolts. Imagicor panels (approximately 350 for a 4-foot by 8-foot sheet), from Designed Images, duplicate the grain patterns of 68 exotic hardwoods, including zebrawood, ebony, Madagascar ebony, and mappa. The designs, which won't fade in direct sunlight, are applied to acrylic or polycarbonate sheets of various thicknesses to accommodate a range of bend radii. The panels are long-lasting and easy to care for, they won't warp or discolor from moisture, and scratches i the surface can be buffed out with polishes found in marine or auto stores.
Starting with a donated redwood log, Muir's team cut, bent, nailed, and filled using traditional methods and materials as much as possible. We spent several days watching the team mix their own putty, forge their own nails, and bend planks using fire.
Hardwood stave down to the deck, inside this line of posts (with maybe a VB-inch shim on each, to move it in from the edge), set your scribers to the greatest gap, and mark the whole length, inside and out. If your boat has a full bow, and much flare forward, you may need posts forward at 18-inch intervals to hold that end down (or, if the rail refuses to hook down to the stem, you may even have to cut it to shape out of a wider piece), but at worst you have the nasty thing under control. So take it to the bench and plane the bottom fair and tenderly to the lines you have scribed on the two faces. Clamp it back in place again (the forward end let into the rabbet in the stem or jogged into the heavy block just aft of the stem and the after end cut for the scarf, as shown). Scribe once more if the fit is less than perfect, but drill for fastenings now before you remove it for the final shaping. As for fastenings, you'll be shocked to hear that we have used flathead galvanized spikes,...
In the 1950s, Ricus van de Stadt of the Netherlands challenged the accepted wisdom that rudders should be hung on the trailing edge of the keel to reduce wetted surface and boost performance. The combination of separate hydro-dynamically efficient keels and rudders, coupled to the light plywood construction of the 39-ft (12-m) Zeevalk, foreshadowed the adoption of the fin and skeg hull design. Van de Stadt was one
Hull are configured like a reverse transom, we are calling this boat a 22-footer on deck (LOD). Best features It is said to be extremely easy to launch and rig the boat for sailing. Worst features Judging from owner comments, Schock used plywood on the interior of the water ballast tanks on early boats, then turned to fiberglass starting in 1996. However, they continued to use a brittle caulking material for the joints around the top of the tank, which has often led to leaks. Owners have devised various fixes none sounds easy to accomplish.
Shuldham's model in the Adelaide Gallery, and about that time found its way across the Atlantic. The revolving keel is necessarily quadrangular in shape, whereby it can be raised or lowered without injuring the boat by its leverage or twisting strain. Totally different from the sliding keel, it works or revolves upon a single pivot or bolt through the fore part of the keel, by which means the liability of getting jammed is avoided, particularly when required to be worked in haste. The keel itself, in Mr. Shuldham's invention, is lead, which works in a water-tight wooden case, lined or ribbed with copper or zinc, for the purpose of adding strength to the case, keeping the keel clear of the woodwork, and decreasing the friction.
May need putty to fill in hollows and sanding to get rid of bumps. A kick-up rudder is not standard, though we think it is an essential option. Failures in the lower rudder gudgeon are common. There may be crushing of the deck under the mast step on older models, which used a plywood sandwich rather than solid fiberglass. Failure of the undersized gooseneck is common. Lifelines and pulpits are not allowed by class rules. Forward hatch on newer boats may leak. There's a tendency toward hull dimpling near trailer supports.
The Matilda 20 was created by British designer Robert Tucker and imported to the U.S. from Ouyang Boatworks in Whitby, Ontario. Other manufacturers supplied fractionally rigged, hard-chine, plywood versions of the boat to other markets from plants in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Australia, but all the Matilda 20s produced by Ouyang have round-bilge fiberglass hulls and a masthead rig with a relatively larger foretriangle. The design features a relatively wide beam for her length (a characteristic shared by both of her comps). That, combined with her full-width cabin house (no side decks), makes her relatively roomy,
When they reappeared this spring at their moorings with vibrant paint jobs, All-American sailor Liz Hall, who sailed the gray Mercs as a junior, knew she had to resurrect Friday night Merc racing in Bristol Harbor. Out from the woodwork came Merc enthusiasts with war stories and wide grins. To keep things simple, starts are held off the dock, and only fixed marks are used.
Probably the most useful material we had on board which wasn' t a sacrificial part of the boat, were long lengths of 10 millimeter (3 8-inch) threaded rod. These made possible a secure strapping arrangement of the 18 millimeter (3 4-inch) plywood floorboard to the pole by form-bending the three rods into giant U-bolts. Our first rudder blade measured 270mm x 780mm (10- x 32-inches) which, after first trials, was increased to 440mm and 920mm (17- x 36-inches) by bolting a bigger piece to the existing one.
The Salona should hang tough in windy venues as well. By using uni-directional, bi-axial, and tri-axial fiberglass cloth in the hull laminate, and foam core (to just below the waterline), the boat is relatively lightweight. Three stringers per side, three ring frames, a grid cored with marine plywood, and bulkheads and interior joinery bonded to the hull, make the boat strong and also contribute to its stiffness.
Most modern dinghy hulls are molded in some form of plastic, although wooden boats, built mainly from marine plywood panels, are also available. Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), or fiberglass, is the most popular material. It uses polyester or vinylester resin reinforced with woven glass and covered with a gelcoat to
A bosun s chair can be as simple as a piece of one-inch (25.4-millimeter) plywood with the lifting sling crossed underneath or more sophisticated like the West Marine chair (below) which we now use. A bosun s chair can be as simple as a piece of one-inch (25.4-millimeter) plywood with the lifting sling crossed underneath or more sophisticated like the West Marine chair (below) which we now use.
While in Boston, I thought about what I'd do to the cabin sole when I returned. I considered covering it with Treadmaster or an artificial teak decking called Flexi-teek or replacing the sole with new teak-and-holly-veneer plywood. I even told myself that maybe it wasn't as bad as I recalled. But the moment I stepped below, I knew that it was.
The next step is to check every through-hull fitting, make sure the soft wood plugs hang nearby, and that all valve handles are easy to close. At the same time we give a quick glance at the double hose clamps, making sure rust isn't (yet) taking its toll, and keep an eye out for chafe on any of the hoses or electrical cables which are nearby in the bilge. (We make a habit of putting chafe guards, usually made of PVC or vinyl hose over any wire or plumbing that vibrates, or that touches any machinery that vibrates.) A tapered, soft wood plug should be stored near every through-hull fitting. A tapered, soft wood plug should be stored near every through-hull fitting.
Deck constructions Are teak decks laid over plywood If teak was laid over plywood, was sufficient bedding compound used or will you end up with thousands of small deck leaks where the screws are Avoid balsa-cored decks like the plague. Unless every single screw or bolt hole in the deck has been made oversized and then filled with epoxy and re-drilled, saltwater will penetrate the balsa sooner or later, and the consequences are very expensive If the boat has foam-cored decks, check all horizontal surfaces carefully for delamination by tapping with a small hammer. Do the decks provide adequate non-skid without being knee-grinders If you plan on living aboard or cruising north of Santa Cruz, insulated decks will mean the difference between a damp, drippy interior and comfort. 12. Bulkhead attachment Are the bulkheads adequately attached to the hull On a fiberglass boat they need to be glassed on both sides with multiple layers of tape. This is often a problem area on mass-produced...
We wanted to improve the boat as much as we could. We used epoxy between the planks-it's stronger and lasts longer. Rather than the Oregon pine of the original, the deck is of plywood overlaid with teak. It makes the boat strong and stiff-important if you want to go fast.
The new Switch 55 is built in the South of France by Sud Composites and is intended for comfortable bluewater sailing with a small crew. The hulls are molded using vinylester, PVC-sandwich composite for light weight and stiffness, while the interior furniture and bulkheads are made of balsa-sandwich panels with hardwood veneers. Reminiscent of the lines of the older Lagoon 47, she carries a cutter rig and a
Many of today's horizontal vane systems use plywood vanes fastened to some kind of mounting bracket. Plywood is a relatively soft material so to prevent damage in strong winds there should ideally be a large contact area between the mounting bracket and the vane. The vane should also be easy to remove as the lazy skipper will otherwise be tempted to leave it fitted even in harbour, leading to unnecessary wear or breakage when it is not even in use. Many ARIES vanes have been left in place for years once the skipper realised removal entailed disassembling the entire locking device. The Sailomat 601 gear has the windvane inserted into a slotted aluminium tube, an arrangement that provides very little contact area between the mounting bracket and the vane. Monitor vanes are removed by undoing a pair of bolts. The Windpilot Pacific mounting bracket provides a large contact area with the vane and has a slot which allows quick removal of the vane once the locking device has been loosened...
Even after 70 years, Falcon, with Spark-man & Stephens Mitch Gibbons-Neff trimming the kite, isn't afraid of a tight spinnaker reach (left). As with any wooden boat, keeping the woodwork shiny is no small feat. Sapphire (right) is one of three NY 32s that call Castine Harbor home.
The main characteristic of the junk is that it is a flat-bottomed boat without a true keel, with internal bulkheads that divide up the ship, both along the length and across the beam, into twelve or more separate watertight sections.* The hulls of large Ming dynasty ships were built in sections, which were then bolted together with large brass pins. These hulls were made of three layers of hardwood built around a teak frame. External planks were caulked with coir and then lacquered. The decks were covered the stern deck was raised to provide protection in a following wind. Because of the flat bottom, a junk required a great deal of ballast for stability. The prow was blunt and the stern flat, and with its broad beam, the junk was rather ungainly looking to Western eyes. However, the internal bulkheads and stubby shape made the hull structurally rigid. In waters frequently swept by typhoons, strong hulls were essential. And just in case a hull compartment was holed, the junks were...
The Dolphin 46 is a cruising catamaran, built in Brazil. Her interior is richly finished with local hardwood trim, teak-type flooring, and finely fitted cabinetry. Her twin daggerboards help her point going to windward and reduce resistance when sailing off the wind. She sports a semicircular saloon table, providing space for 8, while the cook has an unobstructed view from his forward facing galley. Nearly vertical saloon windows help reduce heat radiation from the tropical sun and her built in hull portlights provide an airy and light hull interior. The Dolphin 46 is a catamaran that has broad appeal to sailors who care not only about well appointed amenities, but the feel of the yacht underway.
Materials and displacement transformed dinghy design too. Plywood sped up building time, which generated a post-World War II dinghy boom. Flat panels and the simple curvature allowed by just four pieces of plywood were simple to construct. This particularly appealed to the do-it-yourself builder, the best example being the 11-ft (3.3-m) Mirror dinghy, designed by Jack Holt.
Ship's Carpenter is in a pretty building on the waterfront. It is run by David Morand, a Canadian with 23 years experience in marine woodwork. He has supervised several complete refits, including a 1953 Rhodes 45 that he did in Trinidad. David has extensive sailing experience, having sailed from his native country. Before arriving in Trinidad he worked at CMO in Venezuela tor a couple of years. He always has teak on hand (and is willing to sell you some for your own job), as well as marine ply and decorative laminates. He does good interior
All wood members entering into the repair of boats shall be finished smooth on all sides. Uncaulked seams, joints, and faying surfaces shall be fair and in continuous contact when assembled. Caulked seams shall be fair and continuous and watertight when assembled with caulking compound. The outside of the hull shall be fair, free from tool marks, and sanded smooth. Wood members, when assembled in place, shall not be subject to stresses beyond their proportional limit as evidenced by any damage to the members. Any frames which show splitting or wrinkling shall be removed and replaced. Holes and loose knots shall 583-126.96.36.199 Setting Fasteners. Fastenings shall be set snug but not so tight as to weaken the material by rupture of wood fibers adjacent to the fastening. Lead holes shall be drilled for all screws and fetter ring nails. Diameter of lead holes shall not exceed 70 percent of the root diameter of screws for soft woods and 90 percent for hardwoods....
Areas of potential leaks in every vessel should be catalogued and reviewed for control. The worst problem areas are keelbolts, through-hull fittings, and stuffing boxes (on both rudder and propeller shafts). Soft wood plugs should be available for through-hull fittings, along with a large quantity of underwater epoxy, (which has many other uses aboard). One possibility to consider when chasing a leak is a source above the waterline. It's amazing how much water will find its way below through unstopped chain pipes and cockpit lockers when you're reaching or beating in heavy going.
Next page bottom An advantage that building with aluminum has over composite construction techniques is the lack of expensive tooling. Often, just plywood jigs are erected on the shop floor, around which the boat is taking shape. In the foreground the flybridge coaming is being erected.
To make the head of a hammer maul you will need a 4 inch diameter, 10 inch long piece of hard, dense, unchecked, well seasoned, hardwood such as elm, black gum or hophornbeam. 6A Make a hardwood wedge that is 1 1 4 inch wide, 3 inches long, and 1 4 inch thick at its large end. 1-----Piece of seasoned hardwood that is 1-----piece of seasoned hardwood that is
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Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman
THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.