World War Ebooks Catalog
The following is but a basic outline of how World War 11 effected the Solomons. It is aimed at showing just why so much blood was spilt by both sides in this part of the South Pacific and not at filling the reader with incidentals. After some of the fiercest fighting ever seen in World War 11, the Japanese were slowly driven back, out of the Solomons, out of New Students of World War 11 will know better than to think the Allies won for any other reason than, they had the biggest hardware store. The Japanese enjoyed superior destroyers, well conceived and executed plans of battle and more than anything their men had a fanatical win or die attitude.
The accompanying map shows Australia's size relative to the United Kingdom and Europe. It has an area of 2,968,000 square miles. But emphasising its size more than any other single factor is its population. This is an almost insignificant 15,276,000 (1984 figures). Most of her 12,446 miles of coastline is uninhabited and virtually impossible to control by an affordable navy, a fact which encouraged her alliance with the West generally and England and America in particular. In the past, threats to Australia's vulnerability have proved unfounded and the upheavals in the neighbouring areas since the Second World War in Malaya, Indonesia, Vietnam and China, have not affected her although they may have given reason to the controversial and isolationist white Australian policy, a policy which has been abandoned for a liberal outlook on foreign affairs and particularly towards coloured immigration, Aborigines and neighbouring emerging nations.
Post-World War II America flaunted excess. Aggressively ugly automobiles serviced the ill-conceived tract houses that sprouted around nearly every city. As their contribution to this scene, boat designers or at least boat promoters contrived short, fat, and high plywood boxes that they marketed as outboard cruisers. These monstrosities ran at high speeds only on the advertising pages of boating periodicals. In real life they were slowed by any sea larger than a ripple and by totally unreasonable fuel costs a considerable achievement in those days of 23-cents-per-gallon gasoline.
The Luganville-Santo area is where the American forces had their second base in Vanuatu. It was the most forward of the forward bases used during the fighting in nearby Solomon Islands. The most outstanding monument to World War 11 here is at Million Dollar Point - east from the anchorage where equipment was driven, dropped or sunk into the harbour.
I have been writing and illustrating most of my life. At age nine, in 1943, I traded a pencil drawing I had done of a World War II B-17 bomber to a third grade classmate for a die-cast toy boat, my first commercial transaction. In 1946, at age twelve, I won first prize in a state-wide Scholastic Arts contest for a pen-and-ink drawing. I went to college, trained as a mechanical engineer, found a job, and at night got an MBA.
Schock, the Southern California sailboat builder, started building an International 14 racer right after World War II and never looked back. Over the years this family-run company introduced so many Santana-branded boats and Schock-branded boats that it can be easy for a casual observer to get confused. Even the Santana 23 (not to be confused with the Santana 22 or the Santana 25 reported elsewhere in this book) comes in two versions the 23D (for daggerboard) with a vertically lifting keel and lifting outboard rudder, built from 1978 to 1984, and the 23K (for fixed keel)
Stambaugh's Mist awakens memories of plywood sloops that filled the pages of Popular Whatever magazines in the years following World War II. But, in some ways, she's quite different. Many of the early-1950s hulls were designed aggressively for sheet construction. That is to say, every ounce of twist had been wrung out of their carefully developed developable shapes. Stems and rails were faired into the hulls to the extent that they virtually disappeared.
I've had the good fortune to sail quite a few miles in wood boats that were built before World War II. One was a John Hanna-designed Tahiti ketch built in 19 6, on which I sailed across the Pacific the boat was circumnavigated by her owner and returned home as solid as the day she left.
I have since learned that the volcano does not erupt on any regular basis. On those occasions that it does let go, the display is nothing short of magic. According to a New Zealand cruising acquaintance who passed the area during an eruption in 1972, the evening sky took on a weird red glow as the sea in the distance bubbled (he was well away from the centre). It reminded him, he said, of what a naval engagement must have looked like during World War 11.
WORLD WAR 11 had its usual effect on the locals, Used as an advance base for the fighting in New Guinea and the Solomons by the American Forces, vast sums of money were spent in the New Hebrides on bridges, airfields and roads. As usual some weird and wonderful beliefs arose from the ashes of Pacific war. Cargo cults sprang up all over the Pacific but few were as bizzare as the John Frum Movement on Tanna Island.
Back in those days, I was far more of a traditionalist than I am today. I had kerosene running lights outside and kerosene cabin lamps inside. Every spring, with an open Button's Nautical Navigation in front of me, I'd swing my compass and adjust my father's trusty World War II sextant. My only two concessions to modernity were a large-looped radio-direction finder and an electronic Accutron wristwatch.
When very close to the harbour the entrance is unmistakable because of the obvious houses along the south coast, but especially because of the tall white lighthouse which doubles as a memorial to the Coast Watchers of World War II. This structure, incidentally, is floodlit at night with regular periods of dark.
Certainly, the single word Guadalcanal is one of the most famous to come out of World War 11. The campaign fought here was one of the most important because it was on Guadalcanal where the Japanese were either stopped or permitted to fan out and spread to Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and so on. The fact that we are still speaking English indicates that the Japanese were stopped and turned back on this very famous and very beautiful piece of real estate, (see full story in Part 1. under 'World War 11 in the Solomons).
During the last world war the United States established major naval and air bases in Trinidad. They served to protect oil shipments to England, which were prime targets for German U-boats. Trinidad has the good fortune to have large oil deposits and a pitch lake. As a result it is more industrialized than the rest of the Caribbean and produces, among other things, steel and ammonia which are exported, along with oil and natural gas. Shipbuilding and major construction are undertaken.
Alexishafen Mission was started by the Germans in 1907. During World War II the European Priests, Nuns and mission workers were shipped by the Japanese to (then) Hollandia in West Irian. Half were killed during an American attack. Later the Allies rescued them from Hollandia and took them to Australia where, at Moorebank, N.S.W. a Seminary was started, some students from which are now stationed back at Alexishafen.
There seems little doubt that since its first appearance aboard seaplanes before World War II, the plough has been as good a burying anchor as any available. Its holding power per unit weight is hard to equal and it is easy to stow. In its 'genuine CQR' form (try running the letters together they stand for 'secure') it is superbly forged, richly galvanised and will give a lifetime of trouble-free service as a best bovver. It isn't as good as a fisherman anchor in kelp, but otherwise, in my experience, it is unbeatable.
For almost two centuries during the Middle Ages, Symi was under the rule of the Knights of St John, who guarded the Crusaders' route to Jerusalem. During World War II, bombs damaged the Knights' castle and many of Symi's homes, some still lying in ruin. The Armistice ending the war in the Dodecanese was signed on Symi in 1945.
We now come to the work of Donald Jordan, his research on the capsizing of sailing yachts, and his invention of a new type of drogue. During World War II, Jordan was a bright young engineer who worked on the design of military fighter planes. Later he joined the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Company in Connecticut and eventually became chief engineer. When he retired in 1976 he spent 10 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a senior lecturer. An ever-curious engineer, he has invented many clever devices.
Depth of water keeps the majority of World War 11 losses safe from the hands of scrap metal dealers but there are many in shallow water. These invariably have been ransacked for yellow metal but in most cases remain in fair condition still. Certainly, they remain of interest to the casual sightseeing diver.
The years either side of World War I were golden times for yacht racing. Around the world, and especially in Europe, clubs were forming and regattas held. But there was no cooperation between clubs and each evolved its own set of rules for racing. This created problems when two or more clubs, especially those from different countries, tried to race against each other.
Better meteorological understanding of the Pacific High (an area of high pressure and light winds) after World War II saw navigators forsake the direct course in order to pick up the bottom of the High and bring the wind direction aft.This cemented the Transpac's reputation as a downwind race and created the design phenomenon of the West Coast sled style yachts of light displacement and big offwind sail plans.
There is a lot to sec in Gibraltar with the many monuments to its rich naval and maritime history to visit, duty free shopping in the colourful, cross-cultural High Street and souks. A trip to the top of the Rock can be made by cable-car, taxi or a walk which takes around an hour. Spain, Morocco and the Western Straits can be seen on a clear day from the top, along with the famous resident barbary v apes', which arc actually tail-less monkeys from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. It is unknown how they came to be in Gibraltar, but in 1915, the army took on their carc in order to curb their nomadic roaming. In fact, during the 2nd world war their numbers declined almost to the point of extinction, and it is said that Sir Winston Churchill ordered more to be imported from Morocco, fearful of the legend which deemed that Gibraltar would cease to be British the day the apes left the Rock St Michael's Cave, half way up, is well worth a visit. Concerts are sometimes held here and the...
Depths occasionally try one but in most cases there is an alternative. In the Russells , for example, most bays and inlets are thirty metres and over making one reluctant to drop an anchor. But to compensate are the many World War 11 dolphins to which a visiting boat can berth in safety and privacy.
Tional yacht racing in 1851 when it hosted the most celebrated yacht race in history the schooner America, the lone foreign competitor, outran more than a dozen English boats in a race around the Isle of Wight to win what has become yachting's Holy Grail. The Squadron launched six challenges to win it back, nearly winning it in 1934. After the Second World War, when the Cup was in danger of extinction, the Squadron helped revive the event by challenging in
Caldwell has had an interesting career. He was married in Australia during World War II. When the war ended, he found himself in Panama with no means of returning to his wife in Australia. Although he was not a sailor, he bought a small sailboat, and with more guts than brains set out for Australia. He got as far as Fiji before wrecking and damn near losing his life. The fiasco resulted in Caldwell's first literary effort, Desperate Voyage.
Arab medinas, as well as new roads and irrigation systems to develop the country. Before the beginning of the Second World War, moderate nationalist feelings had surfaced, but during the war Moroccan forces (ought alongside French troops. After the war this Moroccan loyalty was not rewarded and Istiqlal, the party for independence, grew stronger. When in 1953 Sultan (later King) Mohammed V openly supported the independence movement, he was exiled but this only increased his popularity. Under pressure from increased violence and unrest he was allowed to return to Morocco in 1955 and in 1956 France and Spain signed treaties with the King for the complete independence of Morocco.
World War I (1914-1918) and the Turkish Republic (1923) Following Atatflrk's death in 1938, the country remained neutral in World War II. and continued along its path toward parliamentary democracy. Additional political parties were authorized, with true democracy being instituted in the late 1940s. Since then, three military interventions have disrupted
After World War II, rising nationalism brought demands for independence. In 1964, the British coiony was granted full internal self government. In 1973, the name of the country was officially changed from British Honduras to Belize, a Mayan word meaning muddy waters. Britain promised it would continue to provide economic aid and military support pending the training of a Belizean defense force. In 1981, Belize gained independence. The United States and Belize have traditionally enjoyed close and cordial relations.
Known human habitation goes back as far as the ISth ccntury BC and the ruins of a Neolithic village from that time are found near Mursia, only a few kilometres from Pantelleria port. The island has been under the influence of all the great Mediterranean empires but the Arabs were the first to start cultivation of the rich soil and they built the typical dammuso houses near their fields, still found all over the island. After the Arab period, Pantelleria was taken by the Normans and since that time it has been ruled from Sicily. During the Second World War the Allied Forces heavily bombed the island before they could advance from North Africa to Sicily and Pantelleria town was completely destroyed.
HISTORY Gove shares the general history of the area as outlined in the section on Australia's 'North Coast'. Here it is of interest that Gove itself was named only recently after the American Lt Gove who was killed in action whilst based here during the Second World War. The present airstrip is an improvement of the American-built strip whilst certain meaningless sealed roads in the bush and the remains of two aircraft on display remind us of their endeavour.
The rocky islet of Lampione, only 700m long, has been uninhabited since the lighthouse keeper left following automation. A small landing built during the Second World War is used today by the occasional diving boat, but there is no safe anchorage on the island. Lampedusa and Linosa were both inhabited in ancient times but there are no historic remains. In the past century, Lampedusa has turned into a barren island, bereft of practically all vegetation through careless soil management. It is hard to imagine that in 1800 the island had trees, fertile soil and wild boar. It now has around 4000 inhabitants. A Loran station, operated by a small US navy crew, is located on the W end near Capo Poncntc and when the American air force bombed Benghazi and Tripoli in 1986 the Libyans retaliated with an attack on this installation, which failed.
Materials and displacement transformed dinghy design too. Plywood sped up building time, which generated a post-World War II dinghy boom. Flat panels and the simple curvature allowed by just four pieces of plywood were simple to construct. This particularly appealed to the do-it-yourself builder, the best example being the 11-ft (3.3-m) Mirror dinghy, designed by Jack Holt.
SAW A SAW AG A This is the name given to the passage between Sariba and Sideia Islands as well as to the village on the former island. The village was the site of an American Catalina Base during World War II and the concrete floor of the mess can still be seen. The villagers appear quite religious. Lillie and friend. Lillie owns a plantation in the Calvados Chain and was once married to an Australian before the Japanese took him away during World War II. She has not seen him since.
Until about the time of World War II, rope was made from natural materials - hemp and manilla, cotton, coir, flax or sisal. Now, however, a range of synthetic fibers means that there is a specialized rope for every possible application. Even though natural rope is strong, it is not as strong as it would be if the fibers ran the whole length of the rope. Synthetic ropes, on the other hand, can be made from one continuous length. The filaments do not have to be twisted together to make them cohere. A wide range of synthetic ropes has been developed since World War II, but they all share some characteristics size for size they are lighter than ropes made from natural fibers they are available in a variety of colors and they are cheaper than
DEBOYNE ISLANDS are mostly high, continental type masses lying around the Deboyne Lagoon which is protected by reef and islands. Used as a base during World War II, it provides some excellent anchorages, the best being under Nivani Island as described later. The native canoes here are said to be amongst the best in the country and most are equipped with a dipping lug sail made of rice bags.
To understand how Easterly IV fits in with the Brennan family, realize that Will's grandfather, Tom, was a fireman, carpenter, and avid sailor who worked with a local boat designer in the 1930s to build the first of what turned out to be a popular local racing sloop, the Gulf One Design. In the years preceding World War II, the 30-foot Gulf One Design was fairly inexpensive, relatively simple to build, and fit the bill for older, mostly blue-collar sailors who liked to mix their day-
Cozumel The U.S. built the first airstrip on Cozumel during World War II. Air force planes used the base as a tracking station for German U-boats. After the war, we turned the airstrip over to Mexico. Today Mexicana schedules daily flights from Miami, Merida and Mexico City Aeromexico provides service from Houston, Merida and Mexico City American Airlines from Dallas Ft. Worth Aerocozumel and Aero-caribe offer six daily round trips from Cancun. They also provide service to Chichen Itza, Playa del Carmen and Isla Mujercs.
This lovely bay is very quiet there are just a few holiday homes dotted along the shore. Most of the bay is deep, but there is good anchorage in about 25 feet off the old pilings left over from World War II that are toward the head of the bay. The water shelves rapidly beyond the pilings. This anchorage seems well protected even when southeasterly winds are making boats roll in Chaguaramas.
Incorporated in 1885, the Florida-based and family-owned Merrill-Stevens became the World War II era's largest Atlantic shipyard south of Virginia. Today's experienced, fullservice Miami yacht yard continues to expand service to its local and international clientele with a 40 million addition to include undercover lift and haul-out working sheds for multiple yachts up to 250 feet.
Tackle makers used to be able to keep secret the intricacies of the various knots they tied because it was so difficult to unravel them. Just before World War I, however, an engineer on board an ocean-going liner, Jock Purvis, went to the infinite trouble of dissecting and reconstructing a specimen blood knot, keeping the cut sections in paraffin wax and using a microscope to examine the twists and turns of the line. Purvis's findings were published in the angling press in 1910.
Being in the south, Tanna enjoys a relatively cool winter yet is one of the most fertile islands of the entire group. Its people have a reputation for their independent attitudes. Partly through their beliefs in cargo cult (the John Frum Movement see sub heading World War 11 in chapter HISTORY) and partly because of their basic character, they have recently returned to a more traditional way of life. Missions have been pushed out, grog has been banned in places and custom dress has been readopted. Yet they remain basically friendly to the European.
Nylon was the world's first true synthetic textile fiber. In fact, because it initially showed more promise as a fiber than Dacron, Du Pont focused its energies on developing nylon and actually let a British company by the name of ICI patent what was to become polyester. Later Du Pont had to purchase the U.S. rights back before it could further develop the fiber into what we now know as Dacron. In the meantime, nylon became a tremendously popular fiber both in the fashion industry and later for making parachutes during the Second World War. Eventually its strength and durability were recognised by the sailmaking industry and the fiber was used to make light fabric for spinnakers.
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