IS Comoros to Seychelles

Because the area around the Comoros is subject to tropical storms, this passage should not be undertaken during the cyclone season. From May to October winds along this route are mostly SSE or SE and there is also a favourable current. There are WP IS443 and also set a course for WP IS442. The above offshore routes pass outside Tanzanian waters. The alternative is to take an inshore route inside the reefs that front the Tanzanian coast. If the intention is to cruise most of the Tanzanian coast,...

IS Darwin to Bali

May to September December to April BA 4603 US 603 BAM 7, 34 US 163,175 15142 Challis 12a15'S, 125'00'E 15143 Hibernia 12'07'S, 123'23'E This route leads south of all Indonesian islands. The only dangers on the direct route are the Hibernia and Ashmore reefs to the south of Timor Island. The passage can be broken at Ashmore Reef, especially if the winds are light. The green reflection or blink of the shallow water can often be seen in the sky long before the actual reef is sighted. Currents in...

The Southeast trade winds

Because the Intertropical Convergence Zone is situated north of the equator throughout the year, it may be said that the South Atlantic Ocean does not have a doldrums zone. The SE trade winds are more constant than their North Atlantic counterpart, the NE trades. They form the equatorial side of the air circulation around the oceanic anticyclone, which is situated between latitudes 22 S and 30 S and has a direct bearing on the winds and weather of the entire tropical South Atlantic. The SE...

AN Jamaica to Panama

Apr. to Mdy November tc Dece-0tr jLie to Noverber Cruising Gutie to tnc Canboozn. Panama Canal P-iots Handbook A direct route (AN107A) leads to Panama from ports in the eastern part of Jamaica. The winds will be light while in the lee of the island, but outside Jamaica's wind shadow they will rapidly become strong with large seas. The strong winds and high seas experienced on this route for most of the year, combined with a strong west-setting current, call for accurate navigation as the route...

PN Panama to Hawaii

March to May, November June to October Charlie's Charts of the Hawaiian Islands, Landfails of Paradise. Knuiu PV25A PN250 Panama S 8'50'N, 79'30'W PN 251 Frailes 7'10'N, 80C00'W PN252 PN251 Frailes PN25G Coiba 7 10'N, 8200'W trade wind belt, which extends further south in winter. If the passage is undertaken in November, favourable winds and current can be expected for almost the entire distance. Having left the Gulf of Panama, from WP PN256, a great circle course can be set for WP PN257, off...

PN Hawaii to California

Directions for this route are almost the same as for PN32 as sailing a direct course from Hawaii to California is seldom possible due to the prevailing NE winds. The recommended sailing route from Hawaii runs almost due north before turning east once the area of steady westerly winds has been reached. The turning point varies in latitude throughout the year, being as far north as 40 N in summer and 32 N in winter. The recommended summer route turns quite sharply at the point where steady...

PN Hawaii to Alaska

Summer is undoubtedly the best time to make this passage and most boats which take this northbound route normally leave Hawaii in the second half of June. Such a departure ensures longer and warmer days in higher latitudes and at least one month of cruising in Alaska before heading south again. The course from Hawaii is almost due north and skirts the western edge of the North Pacific high. In summer (June to August), the high is normally centred around 38 eN, 150 *W. NE winds normally persist...

AN Canary Islands to Madeira

Atlantic Islands, Madeira Cruisin> As the prevailing winds of summer are from the northern quarter, this passage is best undertaken either in the spring or autumn. Ideally, one should wait for a spell of southerly winds before leaving the Canaries. At any time, but particularly during summer, it may be easier to sail first to Lanzarote from where the winds will be at a better angle for the subsequent leg to Madeira. In such a case, the best departure point from the Canaries is the small...

AN Canary Islands to West Africa

IVfffrirrfrijti l> (.-f,i rt' 'Mi AN531 Ca-.z-iz S 2 25'N. 15 3 AV AK532 B .rc 20'50'N, 18'15'W AN53 CrJ'cir rt S AN532 Blanc AN534 Bald 13 35'N. '5 55'W WP AN531 south of Gran Canaria, from where a course should be set for WP AN532, 60 miles off Cap Blanc. If not intending to stop in Mauritania, it is recommended to stay well offshore to avoid not only the shallow waters and large number of fishing boats but also the risk of being stopped and possibly boarded by a Mauritanian naval vessel...

IN Sri Lanka to India

Mainly because of considerable bureaucratic hurdles, only a small number of yachts include India in their cruising plans. Although the NE monsoon has more settled weather, the high proportion of NW winds make it difficult to reach most ports on the west coast of the Indian subcontinent during this monsoon. Coastal navigation is made somewhat easier between December and February by alternating land and sea breezes which make it possible to take long tacks along the coast. When sailing along the...

Meltemi

This wind is more commonly known by its Turkish name 'meltemi' than as the etesian wind, which is taken from the Greek word meaning 'annual'. These regular winds blow steadily over the eastern basin of the Mediterranean all summer, commencing in May or early June and continuing until September or even October. The meltemi is at its strongest and steadiest in July and August. Even when the meltemi is not blowing, or while it is being established in the earlier months, it is rare to get winds...

Preface to the Second Edition

Since this book was first published in 19871 have received many positive comments and also some very valuable suggestions from sailors using it. Although in recent years I have not been able to sail as much as I would have liked, mainly because of my involvement with the various sailing events which I organise, it is this very involvement with all those hundreds of active sailors which has provided a rich and constant source of information on new cruising areas, unusual weather conditions, or...

Routes in the North Indian Ocean

Compared to the other two great oceans of the world, the Indian Ocean is crisscrossed by a relatively small number of cruising routes. One reason for this is the smaller number of sailing boats that spend any length of time cruising as opposed to crossing this ocean as part of a world voyage. The routes are governed by the predictability of the weather, the seasons being much better defined than anywhere else. The regularity of the monsoons was recognised by early navigators who knew how to...

AN Canary Islands to Cape Verde Islands

During the winter months, from the middle of December or early January to April, the NE trades blow strongly between the Canary and Cape Verde Islands. Fast passages are aided by the SW setting Canary Current which merges with the North Equatorial Current in the vicinity of the islands. The visibility near the islands is often poor, either because of haze or the dust-laden harmat-tan which blows here in winter. In October and November, winds between the two island groups are less...

Sirocco

In general usage, this name is used to describe any winds from the south bringing hot air off the continent of Africa. Due to depressions moving east across the Sahara Desert, the sirocco blows off the north coast of Africa very hot and dry, often laden with sand and dust, thus reducing visibility. As these winds pass across the sea, they pick up some moisture, and so in Spain, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, and Southern Italy the sirocco arrives at a lower temperature and with a higher humidity than...

AN Azores to USA

Coastal Cruising Guide to the Atlantic Coast Cruising Guide to the New Intermediate Landfall Destination Distance (M) 41'24'N, 71'16'W 41'29'N, 7120'W A difficult decision to be taken on leaving the Azores is whether or not to call at Bermuda. If a stop in Bermuda is envisaged, the same directions apply as for route AN137. Otherwise, it is probably better to wait and see what the weather does, then sail a course which does not take one too far away from the recommended route to Bermuda, so as...

An ABC Islands and Venezuela to Panama

AN1041 Gallinas 13'55'N, 71 C38'W AN 1042 Manzanillo 9'47'N, 79 32'W A large number of westbound boats stop in Venezuela or the offlying islands before continuing the voyage towards Panama. Although this route is just outside the region affected by hurricanes, it is better to plan this passage for the intermediate seasons when more pleasant conditions can be expected. The best point of departure for Panama is Aruba, from where a course should be steered to pass rapidly into deeper waters. On...

AN Lesser Antilles to ABC Islands

Boats leaving from Grenada normally sail directly to Pampatar, on the SE coast of Margarita Island, the nearest official port of entry. The route passes dangerously close to Los Testigos, a group of low islands surrounded by shallows and reefs, which should be given a wide berth unless planning to stop there. More dangers will be passed on the way to Margarita, such as the low island of La Sola. So this passage, although short, should be treated with due caution. Cruising Guide to Trinidad and...

An Virgin Islands to Azores

Yi iftc i ' iffl s y ffii i i ' - I ' ito cij i if Ij f f iiiii it- y j Azores Cr u si -a Guide. At'.-r c islands. Because of the extensive area of variable winds that lies across the direct route to the Azores, the recommended route across the Atlantic leads first in a NE direction into an area of prevailing westerly winds. As such a route passes close to Bermuda, most boats taking it usually stop there before continuing the voyage to the Azores. Directions for those routes are found on pages...

PN Routes from the west coast of North America

PN10 Routes from the west coast of North America PN10 Routes from the west coast of North America The Pacific coast of North America is a more hostile area than its Atlantic counterpart, the weather is harsher, there are fewer all-weather harbours, and the chilly California Current is exactly the opposite to the warm Gulf Stream. The coast, in particular the Pacific Northwest, is therefore a real challenge, not only for the sailors setting off from that area, but also for those, undaunted by...

IS Christinas Island to Chagos

A good place to leave from Chagos is Peros Banhos. Having left the large lagoon through the NW Pass, from WPIS351, north of Diamond Island, the route runs due west along parallel 5 S. The route is clear of dangers, but the Seychelles should be approached with caution because of the rocks and reefs that surround them. The safest approach is to make landfall at Frigate Island by setting course for WP IS352, five miles SE of that island. From there

IT Chagos to Maldives

O'OO1, 74a00'E IT153 Felidhe 3 30'N,74r00'E O'OO', 72t30'E IT156 Niiandhe 3P20'N. 73'20'E IT154 North Mat Mal 4e09'N. 7334'E 4'10'N, 73'30'E The most favourable sailing conditions for this route can be expected during the SW monsoon when southerly winds predominate south of the equator. During the changeover period winds are much lighter and there are long periods of calms. During the NE monsoon the winds south of the equator are mostly NW. Currents in this region can be very strong and their...

M Gibraltar to North Africa

MIO Mediterranean routes from Gibraltar M132 AlboranS 3550'N. 3'00'W M133 Tenes 36 45'N, 1 20'E M134 Bengut 372 O'IM'OO'E M135 Bougaroni 37'20'N, 6U25'E M136 Sorelles 37'20'N, 8'35'E M137 Enghela 37'30'N. 9'45'E M138 Plane 37C12'N, 10'25'E 35'17'N, 2'56'W Sidi Fredj 36*46'N, 2'51'W 37'16'N, 9'53'E La Goulette 36'49'N, 10'18'E There is a large choice of destinations on the North African shore, from the small Spanish possessions of Ceuta and Melilla all the way to the east coast of Tunisia. The...

AN Cape Verde Islands to Lesser Antilles

The Lesser Antilles, Sailor's Guide to the Windward Islands. Yachtsman's Columbus was first to see the attraction of these islands as a better springboard for a trade wind passage across the Atlantic than the Canaries and he set off on his third voyage to the Caribbean from here. The advantage of this route is not only that the actual transatlantic passage is shorter but also that the Cape Verdes are situated for most of the year in the heart of the NE trades. Fast passages are usually logged...

AN Azores to Gibraltar

Plplplliitl 37'42'N, 25'22'W AN 1343 St 36 00'N, 6 00'W AM 3-14 JcY z 35D59'N, 5 36'W Directions as far as Cape St Vincent are the same as those for AN133 and similar weather conditions can be expected until the route comes under the influence of continental weather. East of Cape St Vincent, the Portuguese trades are normally lost and winds become more local in character. On summer days, a SW sea breeze occurs on approaching the Bay of Cadiz. This wind comes up around noon and lasts until...

M Port Said to Israel

Breaking in the shallow waters off the Israel coast occasionally make it difficult to enter some ports. Boats approaching the Israeli coast are supposed to contact the authorities when 40 miles off to give details of vessel and ETA. On approaching the coast yachts are met and occasionally boarded by a patrol boat, which then accompanies the vessel to the port of entry. Tel Aviv Marina monitors VHF channel 16, but because of the difficult entrance night arrivals

Gregale

These strong winds also from the NE are felt in the Central Mediterranean, on the coasts of Sicily and Malta and especially in the Ionian Sea. They flow out of high pressure areas situated over the Balkans and are common in the winter months, especially in February. These winds usually blow at gale force, are cold, and produce a heavy swell. The NE coast of Malta is particularly vulnerable as the main harbours are open to the NE. It was a gregale that wrecked St Paul on the Maltese coast in the...

M Cyprus to Rhodes

Route MfttK M832 Kyrenia N 35'21'N, 33C18'E M833 Cyprus NW 35'26'N, 32'55'E M834 Strongili 36'05'N, 29'37'E It is generally recommended to wait for a spell of E or SE winds before making this passage, which can be hampered by strong northerly winds in summer. If persistently strong W or NW winds occur after the start of this passage, it is preferable to go on the port tack and head for the Turkish coast where either a change in the weather can be awaited or shorter tacks taken along the coast....

AN West Africa to Northern Brazil and Guyanas

November to May None BA 4012 US 106, 107 BA 1, 7A US 124, 143 This passage is best undertaken during winter when the NE trade winds reach further south. If leaving from a port south of the river Gambia, a NW course should be sailed first to avoid an area of light and variable winds close to the equator. If leaving from Senegal, the recommended route passes south of the Cape Verde Islands. In both cases, a course should be set for WP AN653. This intermediate waypoint is suggested to avoid the...

AN Bermuda to Lesser Antilles

It is difficult to suggest an optimum time for this passage as the summer carries the danger of tropical storms and the winter that of northerly gales. The best time to make this passage is at the change of seasons, when the risk of hurricanes has abated and the frequency of winter storms is acceptably low. Most boats making this passage actually do it at the best time which fortunately coincides with most people's cruising plans. North American boats passing through Bermuda in November are all...

AN North America to the Eastern Caribbean

There are several alternatives to reach either the Virgin Islands or Lesser Antilles from ports on the east coast of the USA and Canada, and the ultimate choice depends mainly on the type of boat and the experience of the crew. The most direct route leads well offshore and should be attempted only with a thoroughly tested boat and crew. If the voyage starts from any port east of New York, a stop in Bermuda can be contemplated as it does not greatly lengthen the distance. However, as the...

AN Bermuda to Gibraltar

40'00'N, 20C00'W AN 1243 Vincent NW 37'00'N, 9 08'W AN 1244 Hoyo 36WN, 6'20'W AN1245 Tarifa 35'59'N, 5 36'W AN 1246 Can't'ro 36'03'N, 5C25'W Boats bound for the Mediterranean have the choice of sailing nonstop from Bermuda or the more popular alternative of breaking the voyage in the Azores. The direct route should follow similar instructions as AN123 so as to make most of the Atlantic crossing with the help of the prevailing westerly winds and east setting current. Taking one's leave from WP...

Currents

The surface circulation of the North Pacific Ocean resembles a huge merry-go-round in which various currents move in a clockwise direction around a cell located slightly offcentre in the northern hemisphere. The main spring of this circular movement is the North Equatorial Current which flows westward with its axis at about latitude 12 N. To the south of this current is the eastward flowing Equatorial Countercurrent, which has its southern limits between latitudes 2 N and 4 N where it is...

AN Routes from the Lesser Antilles

An71 Lesser Antilles to Venezuela 87 an 72 Lesser Antilles to ABC Islands 87 an73 Lesser Antilles to Colombia 88 an74 Lesser Antilles to Panama 89 an75 Lesser Antilles to Greater Antilles 90 an76 Lesser Antilles to Bahamas 91 an77 Lesser Antilles to North America 92 an78 Lesser Antilles to Bermuda 94 an79 Lesser Antilles to Azores 95 The Windward and Leeward Islands continue to be the most popular cruising destination in the North Atlantic and, although commonly referred to as the Caribbean,...

PS Easter Island to Magellan Strait or Cape Horn

Route PS17A PS171 Caste'SW 2713'S, 109'27'W Although the number of boats that make Easter Island the starting point for a voyage to the stormy Southern Ocean is relatively small, the same route is used for much of its length by boats heading for the south of Chile. Just as Cape Horn or the Straits of Magellan are best reached from Easter Island with the help of the prevailing westerly winds of higher latitudes, so is the south of Chile. The main objective after leaving Easter Island is to reach...

Routes

For Juan Francisco Martin and all those who are living their dreams on the oceans of the world. Waypoint disk If you would like an IBM PC compatible computer disk containing all of the waypoints and coordinates included in this book send a cheque for 9.99 (including VAT and postage and packing) payable to A & C Black to PO Box 19, Huntingdon, Cambs PE19 3SF. Tel (01480) 212 666 Fax (01480) 405 014. Alternatively you may pay by credit card using the telephone number above. Second edition 1995...

PS Galapagos to Gambier Islands

This area, if SW winds are encountered on leaving the Galapagos, it would be better to stay on the starboard tack and keep east of meridian 90 W, even if it means temporarily diverting from the direct route. Depending on weather conditions, a course can then be set to make landfall at Easter Island at WP PS123 north of the island's North Cape. The NW coast should be followed to the main settlement of Hanga Roa. The small port at nearby Hanga Piko, south of Hanga Roa, has been improved recently...

Winds and Currents of the North Atlantic

The NE trade winds extend in a wide belt north of the equator reaching from the west coast of Africa to the Caribbean Sea. They blow for most of the year on the south side of the anti-cyclone which is situated in about latitude 30*N, commonly known as the Azores high. The northern limit of the trade winds is around latitude 25 N in winter and 30 N in summer, although the constancy of the trade winds cannot be relied on near their northern limits. Therefore when making a transatlantic passage it...

Principal World Cruising Routes

Planning an offshore voyage is not a simple matter because many factors have to be taken into consideration. The most important factor to be considered is the safety of the vessel and its crew, therefore it is crucial to ensure that the route will avoid areas of known dangers and also that as much as possible of the sailing will be done during favourable seasons. A large proportion of the cruising routes described in this book are in the tropics, which is where world voyagers spend much of...

PN Hawaii to Central America and Mexico

Charlie's Charts of Costa Rica, Charlie ' Charts of the Western Coast of Mexico, Cruising Guide Acapuico to the Panama Canal. Because of the prevailing northeasterly winds, which blow throughout the year on the direct route to continental America, directions for passages to ports in Northern Mexico are similar to those described in PN33. Reaching Mexico from Hawaii by such a roundabout route is so time consuming that one should think seriously before committing oneself to such a passage. The...

IN Sri Lanka to Oman

Rather than sail nonstop to the Red Sea, a few boats break the voyage on the way, Oman providing one of the few places where this is possible. The course after leaving Galle at WPIN221 leads to WPIN222, south of the Laccadive Islands in the middle of the Nine Degree Channel. Occasionally boats have stopped at Sueli Par, an atoll on the north side of the channel. A course can then be set for WP IN223, five miles SE of the entrance into Raysut harbour. The weather during the NE monsoon is very...

AN Northbound from the Bahamas and Florida

J 11 C J I I Jj Ii i J I 111 ijj I P l JI rfj ff 11 JJ s i I Pj I ' i i I C j I C J i i J i J jfj i I 11 fjj i Coastal Cruising Guide to the Atlantic Coast. 32'40'N, 79a40'W 3244 7950W in South Florida, or sail a more offshore route, if leaving from the Bahamas or Northern Florida. For destinations south of Cape Hatteras, boats leaving from Florida have little choice but to sail a course roughly parallel to the coast. Boats taking an offshore route from the Bahamas, from WP AN1111, in the NE...

AN Gibraltar to North America

Boats intending to sail nonstop to Horta should set a course for WP AN365, 10 miles N of Sao Miguel. Fr.om there the route passes north of Pico. If strong SW winds are encountered among the islands, one can either seek shelter in a port on the north coast of Pico, such as Sao Roque, or sail towards Terceira, where one can wait for a change of weather at Angra do Heroismo, on that island's south coast. The direct route to Ponta Delgada leads to WP AN366, 3...

AN Routes from the Azores

AN131 Azores to Ireland AN132 Azores to English Channel AN133 Azores to Portugal AN134 Azores to Gibraltar AN135 Azores to Madeira AN136 Azores to Canary Islands AN137 Azores to Bermuda AN138 Azores to USA AN139 Azores to Canada Approximately 1000 boats pass through the Azores every year, the majority arriving there from the Caribbean, either direct or via Bermuda. During July a few boats arrive from North America and Northern Europe, but the traffic is confined mainly to the months of May and...

Acknowledgements

In writing this book I have drawn on the experience of many of my friends, particularly those who have sailed on routes which I have not. Norma and Chester Lemon, who circumnavigated both the Pacific and Indian Oceans on Honeymead, and Ilia and Herbert Gieseking of Lou V, now on their second world voyage after circumnavigating on Lou IV, have written many informative letters about the routes they have sailed. A similar special mention must also go to Muriel and Erick Bouteleux for information...

Winds and Currents of the World

Prevailing Wind Directions Turkey

Ever since man first ventured offshore in craft powered by the wind, he has looked for patterns in the wind's behaviour. Such observations may have led the early fishermen to use an offshore breeze to take their canoes to favourite fishing spots in the morning and the onshore breeze to waft them home later in the day. These patterns are still used in some parts of the world where fishermen continue to use sailing craft as their forefathers have done over countless generations. Discovering a...

AN Azores to Ireland

BA 22, 27, 40.67 US 140, 142, 143 Cruising Association Handbook. AN1311 Graciosa 3900'N 2755'W The same general directions apply as for route AN132, but as destinations in Ireland are more westerly than those in the English Channel, the suggestion to sail due north on leaving the Azores does not have to be followed slavishly as it does not matter too much if some leeway is made to the west. This can be corrected later with the help of the westerlies that normally prevail in higher latitudes....

M Malta to Rhodes

Taking WP M521, outside Valletta, as the departure point from Malta, a direct course can be sailed to WP M525, south of Zante. The south coast of that island is followed around to pass through the channel separating it from the Peloponnese coast. Those who wish to clear into Greece at the earliest opportunity can do so in the port of Zante. For those who do not wish to stop, from Zante the route continues into the gulfs of Patras and Corinth and reaches the...

AN Panama to Venezuela and the ABC Islands

Cruising Guide to the Caribbean, Cruising Guide to Venezuela and Bonaire. Intermediate landfall Destination Distance (M) AN981 Gallinas AN982 Aruba Oranjestad 633 13'00'N, 71'40'W 12'35'N, 70'05'W 12'31'N, 70'00'W Those who do not intend to stop in Colombia are faced with a long offshore tack to WP AN981, 30 miles north of Punta de Gallinas. Having reached that point, a first stop can be made in Aruba, where Port Control should be contacted on VHF channel 16 for berthing and clearance...

AN Lesser Antilles to Azores

Azores Cruising Guide, Atlantic Islands. 38'30'N, 28C47'W AN793 Flores 39'20'N, 31'18'W The most popular landfall in the Azores continues to be Horta, on the island of Faial, where there is a good marina and entry formalities can be completed. To reach Horta, make landfall at WP AN792,3 miles SW of Faial and then sail along the south coast of the island before turning north at the conspicuous Mount Guia. The recently improved port of Lajes, on the westernmost island of Flores, offers the...

Contents

2 Principal world cruising routes 8 3 Winds and currents of the world 15 4 Winds and currents of the North Atlantic 33 5 Routes in the North Atlantic 37 AN10 Routes front North Europe 38 AN20 Routes from Portugal 48 AN30 Routes from Gibraltar 54 AN40 Routes from Madeira 64 AN50 Routes from the Canary Islands r 70 AN60 Routes from the Cape Verde Islands and West Africa 80 AN70 Routes from the Lesser Antilles 85 AN80 Routes from the Virgin Islands 96 AN90 Caribbean routes from Panama 106 AN100...

Routes in the Central Indian Ocean

1531 Christmas Island to Cocos Keeling 1532 Cocos Keeling to Mauritius 1534 Christmas Island to Chagos The islands of the South Indian Ocean provide one of the most attractive cruising grounds in the world, yet the number of boats that visit them is very small. There are several reasons for this the remoteness of the islands from the major cruising routes, the restrictions imposed on the movement of cruising boats in some of the islands, either by civil or military authorities, and the fact...

AT Cape Verde Islands to Brazil

Suggestions regarding the optimum point for crossing the equator are given in AT20. If the destination in Brazil is between Cape Sao Roque and Cape Frio, the equator can be crossed further west than the recommended crossing points for routes which continue towards South Africa. However, the equator should not be crossed further west than 30 W, as this might mean beating against the SE trades south of the equator unless this passage is made between October and February, when NE winds prevail...

PN Pacific routes from Central America and Mexico

Pn21 Panama to Central America and Mexico pn22 Central America and Mexico to California pn26 Central America and Mexico to Hawaii pn27 Central America and Mexico to Panama For boats which have transited the Panama Canal there is a rather limited choice of routes heading out into the Pacific. Basically, there are two options either to stay in the North Pacific, where there is a narrow range of initial destinations, or to head towards the South Pacific, where the choices mul- tiply constantly as...

PN Hawaii to Marshall Islands

This is a downwind run all the way pushed along by the NE trades, which become more easterly in the proximity of the islands. Winds are less constant among the islands themselves and in summer the weather can be squally although the direction of the winds remains predominantly easterly. The unsettled summer weather is caused by the ITCZ moving north over the islands. The North Equatorial Current and Equatorial Countercurrent set strongly through the archipelago producing a complex pattern. The...

AN Panama to Lesser Antilles

Ine Lesser Anti-lea Cruising Guide o t e Caribbean. Sailors G& ac to the WmJwMti stands Yjchi r-an s Guioe to fhe tV na jrc is'snds. Cruising This can be a very rough trip as the direct passage is to windward all the way. It is a challenge that is faced by all those who intend to head east after transiting the Panama Canal. Because of the sheer difficulty of reaching the Eastern Caribbean nonstop, most boats break up the voyage into shorter stages by stopping at some places on the way. Some...

AN Lesser Antilles to Panama

Best time , Tropical storms Charts April to May, November to December June to November Cruising Guide to the Caribbean, Panama Canal Pilot's Handbook. AN742 Galinas 1355'N, 71 '38'W AN743 Manzanillo 9*47X79*32 This can be a very rough passage, confirmed by the fact that many experienced sailors describe their passage across the Caribbean Sea perhaps as the roughest part of their voyage around the world. This is usually the case at the height of the trade wind season, when the constant easterly...

Suez Canal

The 87.5 mile long Suez Canal links the Mediterranean and the Red Sea by way of several lakes and without any locks. Its opening in 1869 had a tremendous impact on international shipping as it halved the distance between Europe and the Far East. In its long history, the Canal has been closed twice as a result of war, in 1956 for a year and in 1967 for seven years. It is now used regularly by about 100 ships per day and its recent upgrading has made it possible for the Canal to be transited by...

Transequatorial Routes in the Atlantic

The best way to sail from one hemisphere to the other has preoccupied mariners ever since early explorers discovered the zone of calms that separates the trade wind systems of the two oceans. 'The well known equatorial embarrassments' is how Alexander George Findlay refers to the doldrums in his Memoir of the Northern Atlantic Ocean published last century, a comprehensive book in which he tries to bring together all that was known at the time about the wind systems of the North Atlantic. The...

AT Canary Islands to Brazil

Bis 'iimv Tropical storms Charts AT140 Las Palmas 2807'N, 15'24'W AT141 CanariaS 27 25'N, 15'30'W AT 142 20'00'N, 26'00'W AT143 NoronhaN 3'40'S, 3228'W 22C50'S, 4305'W 22'55'S, 43'12'W The timing of this passage is dictated primarily by the preferred time of arrival in Brazil, rather than by sailing conditions expected en route. The majority of those who make this passage attempt to be in Brazil for Carnival, which means arriving in Salvador (Bahia) or Rio de Janiero before the beginning of...

Tropical Storms

Tropical storms or cyclones occur in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The two periods of the year when their frequency reaches a maximum coincide with the transitional period between the two monsoons. The first period of cyclonic activity is at the beginning of the SW monsoon from late May to the middle of June. The second period coincides with the onset of the NE monsoon and lasts from the end of October to the second half of November. Most of these storms form in the vicinity of the...

AN Madeira to Canary Islands

Cruising guides Canary Islands Cruising Guide, Atlantic Islands, Madeira Cruising Guide. AN411 Salv. Grande AN412 Isleta 30r10'N, 15 45'W 28C09'N, 15'23'W AN413 Saiv. Peque a AN414 Anaga 30'00'N. 16'15'W 28'36'N, 16'07'W Santa Cruz de Tenerife 252 28 29.5'N, 1612.5W This is normally a fast downwind run, particularly during summer. After the beginning of October, although northerly winds are still most common, winds from other directions increase in frequency. From November onwards strong SW...

AN Virgin Islands to Panama

A downwind trip at all times, this passage diagonally across the Caribbean Sea should not be undertaken during the peak months of the hurricane season, between July and October. Another period to be avoided is at the height of the winter trades, between January and the middle of March, when strong winds and high seas are the rule in the Caribbean Sea. Reference should be made to route AN74 (page 89) as directions are similar, with Virgins at the end of their Caribbean cruise and use the Virgins...

AN Routes from Madeira

An41 Madeira to Canary Islands 65 an42 Madeira to Lesser Antilles 67 an44 Madeira to Northern Europe 68 With the exception of Tangiers, which is conveniently located on the south side of the Strait of Gibraltar, most boats avoid calling at Moroccan ports, although those on the Atlantic coast could make convenient stops for boats sailing to the Canaries or West Africa. There are several reasons for this reluctance, the main ones being the complicated formalities, bad pollution in the larger...

AN Bermuda to Azores

Azores Cruising Guide, Atlantic Islands, intermediate Landfall 40 00,N,50t00'W AN1253 Azores 40'00'N, 32,30'W The Azores are situated in such a convenient position in mid-Atlantic that very few boats choose to sail nonstop from Bermuda to Europe. Because Bermuda lies to the south of the region of prevailing westerlies, the recommended strategy is to make as much northing as possible after leaving Bermuda in the hope of picking up favourable winds around latitude 40 N. The advantages of this...

M Sicily to Gibraltar

Boats that have passed through the Messina Strait should follow a course which runs parallel to the north coast of Sicily. From WP M441, off Cape Peloro, north of Messina Strait, an initial course can be set for WP M442, south of Vulcan Island. The route continues almost due west to WP M443, south of Sardinia. There follows a long offshore leg to WP M444, which has been set well to the south of Cabo de Gata in order to avoid the strong current that sets to the east around that cape. The off...

Info

Every year more boats are seen cruising the islands and the facilities available to them are constantly improving. For most boats the main destination on leaving the Canaries is the Caribbean. The time of departure from the Canaries is crucial, both for the conditions to be encountered en route and those expected on the other side of the ocean. The hurricane season in the Caribbean in theory lasts about six months, although the really dangerous period is August to October,...

AN Canary Islands to Bahamas

With the exception of Christopher Columbus, who sailed this route in 1492 and thereby established a permanent link between the Old and New Worlds, few modern boats attempt to sail nonstop to the Bahamas. In 1992, on the occasion of the quincentenary of that historic voyage, this traditional route was sailed by many boats, their crews commemorating in this way the deeds of one oi the greatest navigators in history. The route can be useful for boats intending to sail to the southern USA directly...

AN Canary Islands to Bermuda

The number of boats sailing nonstop from the Canaries to Bermuda is relatively small, probably because the best sailing conditions on this route coincide with the start of the hurricane season in the Western Atlantic. The greatest frequency of hurricanes in Bermuda itself has been recorded from mid-August to mid-October, June and July being considered relatively safe months. For anyone in a hurry to return to the USA, this direct route has much to recommend it and fast passages have been...

An Abc Islands and Venezuela to Colombia

pf H lpf i f f llijiiiiy p Hf lilff I 'l fp l j l plf l lpji i llf i HiliJ y Ip i After being avoided for many years by cruising boats, Colombia is again being included in cruising plans and a large number of visiting boats are stopping in Colombia, especially in the historic city of Cartagena. Directions for sailing to Colombia are similar to routes AN73 and AN74 (pages 88-9). Boats leaving from Aruba should set an initial course for WP AN1051 28 miles north of Punta Gallinas on Guajira...

AN Lesser Antilles to Bermuda

Mia-Aprii to june June to November BA 4400 US 108 BA 70, 71 , US 140, 147 AN781 Antigua West 17s00'Nf 61'56'W AN782 of July and even if they do not generate strong winds, the weather in their vicinity is very unsettled with heavy rain. If such a depression forms close to the northern extremity of the Lesser Antilles, contrary winds can be expected on the way to Bermuda. This passage can also be done towards the end of the hurricane season, when the frequency of S For many years yacht captains...

M French Riviera to Balearios

Kiiiitu M31A M311 Menton 43C45'N, 7'30'E Kouti1 M31H Marseille 43*21'N, 5'19'E Marseille, or one of the ports in its vicinity, is a good point of departure for boats that have cruised along the French Riviera coast in a westerly direction. Those who may have cruised in the opposite direction will take their departure from a port further east, possibly as far as Menton, near the Italian border. For those starting that far east, a detour to Corsica has certain attractions. If sailing nonstop, a...

AN Bahamas to the Eastern Caribbean

Mid-April to June, November to mid-December June to November Gentleman's Guide to Passages South, Yachtsman's Guide to the Bahamas, Cruising Guide to the Leeward Islands. Having reached the Southern Bahamas either by one of the offshore routes or through the islands, the subsequent leg to the Virgins will be to windward for most of the way and also for most of the year. The route has been called the 'thorny path', and for very good reason. The best time to undertake it is at the change of...

AT Brazil to Lesser Antilles

The Lesser Antilles, Sailor's Guide to the Windward islands, Cruising Guide Northbound passages from ports in Southern Brazil are hampered by the strong NE winds and SW current, which occur between October and February. Passages during this time from ports south of Recife are best avoided. If the passage cannot be undertaken at a better time, the only solution is to stand well offshore until the SE trades are found and then make northing with their help. Boats coming from ports south of Rio de...

IT Red Sea to South Indian Ocean

IT221, a direct course leads to WP IT222, off the Horn of Africa, which is rounded by setting course for WP IT223, off Cape Guardafui. From there the course goes due south to WP IT224 off Ras Hafun and then runs parallel to the African coast passing through WP IT225 and crossing the equator at WP IT226. A first port of entry into Kenya is at Lamu. The other two official ports of entry are Malindi (3 13'S, 40 07'E) and Mombasa < 4 04'S, 39'41'E). During the SW monsoon the coast of Africa can...

AT Northbound routes

At21 Brazil to Lesser Antilles at22 Brazil to Europe at23 South Africa to Azores at24 South Africa to Lesser Antilles at25 South Africa to North America at26 Cape Horn to Europe i at27 Cape Horn to North America The transequatorial strategy for northbound vessels is somewhat less daunting than the one applied by boats heading south and the point where the equator should be crossed is dictated by the locations of the ports of departure and destination. As most boats sailing north from Cape Town...

AN Cape Verde Islands to Azores

Northerly winds blow on average 80 per cent of the time on the route between these island groups. Therefore the optimum time for this passage is late spring or early summer when the proportion of NE winds is higher than at other times and, depending on the type of boat, one may be able to lay the Azores on one tack. An additional bonus may be provided by a depression intersecting one's track in higher latitudes, and although the resulting SW winds may cause uncomfortable conditions at least...

AS St Helena to Brazil

Rather than take the direct route from St Helena to the Eastern Caribbean, many boats make a detour to Brazil before rejoining their NW route. One of the main attractions on Brazil's NE coast is Salvador, commonly referred to as Bahia, whose annual Carnival is a keen rival of the more famous Carnival of Rio. Landfall is made at WP AS132 off Cape Santo Antonio in the approaches to the perfectly sheltered natural harbour. Further up the Brazilian coast, another convenient port of entry is Recife....

Routes in the Mediterranean

Sailing conditions in the Mediterranean have been reviled and ridiculed by modern sailors more than in any other part of the world and the most repeated saying is that 'in the Mediterranean one either gets too much wind or none at all, and what one gets is on the nose'. Fortunately this is not always true and although the winds encountered in this inland sea cannot be compared in constancy to the trade winds of the Caribbean or Indian Ocean, most offshore passages can be made under sail. The...

M Greece to Messina Strait

There are two main routes reaching the Messina Strait from Greece. Boats leaving from the Central Aegean may prefer to use the Corinth Canal and pass north of the Peloponnese (route M62A), whereas boats which are in the Southern Aegean should join route M62B. Route M62A takes its departure from Greece at WP M621, in the channel between the islands of Cephalonia and Zante. The route goes right across the Ionian Sea to WP M622, off Cape Spartivento at the toe of Italy. The coast is followed...

AT West Africa to Brazil

8A 4215. 4202 US 22,106 8A 1, 5 US 124,143 West Africa is becoming a more popular destination and many boats that cruise there continue their voyage to Brazil before sailing on to the Caribbean. The transequatorial passage requires careful planning as the doldrum belt in the proximity of the African coast can be 400-500 miles wide. Even if one is prepared to try and motor through it, a power assisted passage through the doldrums can be very uncomfortable because of the confused swell generated...

The Aegean

Cruising guides Greek Waters Pilot, Saronic, Turkish Waters Pilot. The islands of the Grecian archipelago and the Turkish coast of Asia Minor offer a great variety of cruising opportunities and this is reflected in the large number of sailing boats that ply the Aegean each summer. Navigation rarely presents any real problems, there are countless safe harbours and anchorages, all dangers are clearly marked on charts and even the traditional rivalry between Greece and Turkey affects visiting...

IS Darwin to Christmas Island

Ing current from the Lombok Channel, separating the islands of Lombok and Bali. The area abounds with overfalls and rough breaking seas and can be quite dangerous in strong winds, which fortunately do not occur too often. Also one should be prepared for ghost readings on the depth sounder with sudden shallow readings caused by the different layers of water. The best passages on this route are made during July and August, when the SE winds are most regular. At the beginning and especially at the...

IS Mauritius to Seychelles

The SE trade winds provide fair winds on this route from May to October, although the weather tends to be occasionally squally. Cyclones affect the area around Mauritius from the middle of November until the end of April or even beginning of May, during which time it is best to avoid being in this area. As the route passes fairly close to the Cargados Carajos Reefs, some boats take the opportunity to stop at one of these small islands. They belong to Mauritius and permission to stop there...

AT Canary Islands to South Africa

The South African coast, care must be taken not to be swept northward by the strong current. Ideally Cape Town should be approached from the SW. Occasionally the SE trades extend further south and make it difficult to make sufficient easting above latitude 30 S. In such a case the route might have to take a more southerly dip and pass close to Tristan da Cunha. A stop in this remote and windswept island is well worth a small detour and the warm welcome from its lonely inhabitants will make up...

M Israel to Malta

This passage can be undertaken at any time during summer when mostly northerly winds can be expected. From WP M931, outside Tel Aviv marina, a direct course can be set for WP M932 to pass south of Crete and Gavdhos Island. From there a new course can be set for WP M933, east of the approaches to Port Said. The approach channel into Port Said is taken from this point. The channel should be entered at its northern extremity and no shortcuts taken because of a number of wrecks lying outside this...

IT Kenya to Sri Lanka

This is a route strictly for the SW monsoon, when both winds and current will be favourable. On leaving Mombasa atWP IT181, the route runs parallel to the African coast to take full advantage of the favourable current. After the equator is crossed at WPIT182, the course can be altered for WPIT183. Prom there, a course can be set for WP IT184, north of Ihavandifullu Atoll, in the Bight Degree Channel north of the Maldives. Having cleared the Eight

RS Southbound routes

Rsi Suez to Port Sudan rs2 Port Sudan to Gulf of Aden The best time for a southbound passage through the Red Sea depends on just as many factors as a northbound voyage, although weather conditions are invariably better. The most pleasant time to head south is probably during the spring months, from February to April, when the weather is becoming warmer in the northern areas and it is not too hot in the southern section. At this time favourable winds can be expected to last at least as far as...

Is Durban to Mauritius

Charts November to April BA 4070 US 70, 700 BA 3. 39 US 170, 171 r* t ifw ipiiiiiii * aMiiiriiMJt* direct route to Mauritius. The NE course will lead first into an area of variable winds and calms. The SE trade winds can sometimes be found as far south as 30 S and, once found, they should ensure a fast passage for the rest of the voyage. The best month for this passage is May when the cyclone season has come to an end in the South Indian Ocean and the winter gales of...

IS Seychelles to Comoros

April to May November to April BA 4070 US 72 BA 39 US 171 15422 Descroches SW 5'42'S, 53 37'E 15423 Boudeuse 6'00'S, 52e51'E IS424 Alphonse 6C30'S, 53'00'E IS425 Cosmoiedo 1000'S, 46'45'E 15426 Comoro N 11'25'S, 43'15'E 15427 Anjouan NW 12i08,S,44s25'E 11 '42'S, 43'15'E Mutsamudu 12'10'S, 44'24'E Because of the various island groups and numerous reefs encountered on this route, and also the likelihood of strong headwinds at the height of the SE monsoon, when the direction of the wind becomes...

RN Bab el Mandeb to Port Sudan

Very few boats choose to continue their voyage from the Indian Ocean into the Red Sea without stopping and the distinctly narrow choice is between Aden and Djibouti. Because of the uncertain situation in Aden, and the limited range of legend among sailors, it must be pointed out that winds do not always follow the axis of the sea and, although forced to tack, boats can usually choose a more favourable tack. Another observation worth bearing in mind is that the wind tends to shift with the sun,...

AN Panama to Central America

Voyage can be continued to the Lesser Antilles. If the Canal is transited in late October or early November and the trade winds are already too strong to attempt a direct passage, it may be worth approaching the Lesser Antilles from the north, by sailing first to the Virgin Islands via Puerto Rico. This latter course of action will depend greatly on the windward performance of tKe boat, as most of the passage will be hard on the wind. An easier option would be to reach the Eastern Caribbean in...

IS Cocos Keeling to Chagos

The North Entrance, from WP IS331, NW of Horsburgh Island, a direct course can be set for WP IS332,10 miles SE of Blenheim Reef. From there the course can be altered for WP IS333 close to the NW There are few boats which bypass Cocos Keeling Island and sail direct from Christmas Island to Chagos. However, in unsettled weather it might be preferable to sail a direct course, rather than make the detour to the south. The winter months of May to September provide both favourable winds and current....

AN North America to Bermuda

AN1433 off Beaufort 34'40'N, 76C40'W AN 1.435 Bermuda N 32 35'N, 64C50'W Early summer passages from any port on the US east coast should not be too difficult as the prevailing SW winds are favourable, even if it may entail a close hauled passage for boats sailing out of ports north of New York. Provided a favourable forecast has been obtained before leaving, the crossing of the Gulf Stream should present no problems. In the early summer the weather is usually pleasant and even if the winds are...

IS Comoros to East Africa

(M) IS441 Mayotte NE 1S442 off Mombasa Mombasa 616 12'44'S, 45'15'E 4'06'S, 39'44'E 4 04'S, 3941'E IS443 Comoro NW IS442 off Mombasa Mombasa 502 Favourable winds prevail along this route during the SE monsoon and there is also a north-setting coastal current throughout the year, which can reach as much as 4 knots at the peak of the SE monsoon, but is only slight during the NE monsoon. The most pleasant weather is in July and August, when the temperature is cooler and humidity low. Whether...

AN West Africa to Azores

Bis i I U Tropical storms Charts Azarea Cruising Guide A snin ar.ai. As explained in route AN61, NE winds predominate in the area south of the Azores and passages should therefore be timed for a period when the proportion of such winds is lowest. Starting off from one of the West African ports, as opposed to the Cape Verdes, has the obvious advantage of a better angle in relation to the prevailing winds, so unless one has a very good reason to stop in the Cape Verdes, the valuable easting...

PN California to Hawaii

This route enjoys favourable winds throughout the year, although few boats attempt to make the passage in winter, both on account of the cold and the high proportion of strong winds, On the other hand, summer months carry the risk of tropical storms, August and September being considered the most dangerous months. Although very few of these storms reach as far west as Hawaii, their tracks sometimes swing to the NW and thereby cross the sailing routes from the mainland. Between the two extremes,...

AN Azores to English Channel

Cruising Association Handbook, Shell Pilot to the English Channel Vol. 1. AN1323 Arnel 37'50'N, 25,05'W AN1325 AN1326 AN1324 Ferrar a 37 52'N, 25'52'W AN1325 AN 1326 The prevailing winds of summer are NE and therefore all passages from the Azores to Northern Europe are usually close hauled. A direct course for the English Channel is rarely possible, nor is it advisable, as the westerly winds and east-setting current that prevail in higher latitudes will set the boat into the Bay of Biscay. The...

AT Southbound routes

Atll Europe to South Africa at12 Canary Islands to South Africa at13 North America to South Africa at14 Canary Islands to Brazil at15 Cape Verde Islands to Brazil at16 West Africa to Brazil at17 Lesser Antilles to Brazil The best longitude to cross the equator depends very much on the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone at the time of the passage. Fortunately satellite pictures show its exact position, which can help those with access to this data to decide on the best strategy. The...

PN Singapore to Hong Kong

I* ii if jiiiliifilllii ' If iSLf MRiiill > i l iiL iil i -iiiMiiii --Itilff til-- PN431 Chadwick 10'00'N, 10943'E PN432 Paracel W 17'05'N, 111'20'E PN435 Natuna 3 30'N, 108'25'E PN436 Luc 4'20'N.112,30'E PN437 Balabac 7a35'N, 117'00'E PN438 Palawan 10'30'N, 118'00'E Direct passages through the South China Sea must avoid a large area of reefs and associated dangers north of Borneo. In the past the recommended route passed between the north coast of Borneo and this reef area and re-entered the...